Arrangement of a well on the water with your own hands: how to equip a water source near the house and in the country
You got a well and are worried that it does not stop the flow of water with the onset of cold weather? It is completely unpleasant to stay without water at the most inopportune moment, is not it? In order to provide your home with a full-fledged autonomous supply of water, you plan to prepare a source for operation, but do not know how to do it correctly?
We will help you to competently carry out the arrangement of the well on the water with your own hands, we will show you how to build a caisson or mount an adapter yourself, as well as install a cap and where to place the accumulator.
Our article presents the best options for protecting your well from various surprises of nature with detailed photos that allow you to visually assess the complexity of each of the structures under consideration.As well as useful recommendations on the selection of optimal equipment with video advice from experts on the arrangement of the water source on their own.
Why do you need to build a well?
After the well has been drilled and before the water supply system in the house is fed from it, the source equipment, the selection and installation of water supplying equipment are made.
What tasks solves the arrangement of a water well:
- Ensuring the purity of the source. Do not allow contaminants from the surface to enter the well: dust, rain or melt water.
- Protection of water source, equipment and pipeline from freezing.
- Formation of conditions for the connection and maintenance of equipment.
Water supply equipment (except for a submersible pump) can be installed both in the house and near the well. In the latter case, it is necessary to have a technical room of sufficient area at the wellhead where this equipment will be installed.
But even when installing it in the house, it is very convenient to have a small room at the exit of the pipeline from the well; this greatly facilitates the installation of the pump and its maintenance.
The injection of a water pipe into the well, as well as the power supply for the submersible pump, is also carried out at the construction stage.
Selection and installation of equipment for the supply of water
Equipment for individual water supply consists of the following elements:
- Pump, it can be submersible or located on the surface.
- Automaticsthat controls the operation of the pump and protects it from overloads.
- Accumulator, open or closed (membrane tank). The latter is preferable, it provides a stable pressure in the water supply.
An open water storage unit must be installed at the top of the water supply system, in the attic or under the ceiling of the upper floor. Closed container has no restrictions on the place of installation.
The nature of the well arrangement is largely determined by the type and location of the water supply equipment.Consider the basic options for completing the source equipment.
Shallow well surface pump
Surface pump significantly cheaper, easier to install and maintain than submersible.
The most rational and economically viable option is a “three-in-one” complete pumping station, which includes a surface pump, a relatively small (20-60 l) membrane tank and all the necessary automation.
Only the suction hose is lowered into the well. Thus, the well construction and pump maintenance are simplified.
In addition, the hose has a small diameter, which allows it to be used in the so-called “Norton wells” (Abyssinian wells), where the submersible pump simply does not fit.
Pumping stations have only one, but a very significant drawback. The surface pump is not able to lift water from a great depth, for most models the limit is 8-10 m.
This limits the scope of application of pumping stations to wells and shallow wells.
Due to the low lift height, pumping stations with an overhead pump often have to be installed as close as possible to the wellhead.
Otherwise, you will have to additionally overcome the hydraulic resistance from the water source to the place in the house where the pump is installed.
Deep Well Submersible Pump
To raise water from wells more than 10 m deep, it is necessary to use submersible pumps. The correct choice of a pump and the determination of its suspension height in the casing is a separate and rather difficult question.
In the framework of the article, we just need to understand what additional equipment the pump is equipped with, how it is mounted, connected.
As we have already mentioned, the mandatory elements of the water supply equipment of an individual house are a hydroaccumulator and control automation.
In the case of a submersible pump, the height of which is many times higher than that of the surface pump, there are no restrictions on the place of installation of the closed accumulator.
The membrane tank and control can be placed quite far from the wellhead, the distance to the source slightly affects the operation of the system.
A great place to place equipment is a dry and clean technical room in a house, basement or ground floor.
To protect the source and equipment from weathering, precipitation and freezing, a protected room is erected around the wellhead, positioning it above the ground level or below the ground surface:
Option # 1 - the elevated "house" -Pavilon
At first glance, the easiest way to put a small house over the water intake structure is Pavilion. It can be slightly buried, like the entrance to a detached cellar, sprinkled on the sides of the ground, making a kind of bench. This will reduce heat loss.
Similar pavilions make over industrial wells. But in the private courtyard you see them infrequently. "House" takes place on the site, clutters it, which is doubtful from an aesthetic point of view. In addition, the elevated pavilion is not easy to effectively warm.
Option # 2 - placing the source inside the building
The infrequently used, but quite rational technical solution for arranging a water well is to locate a water source in the basement of a dwelling house or inside an insulated economic building, winter greenhouse, greenhouse.
It is, incidentally, a popular reception in the construction of stone buildings.
The well and equipment under the roof are reliably protected from all atmospheric influences, thieves and vandals. Simplified installation and service work.
Vibration equipment does not create, from noise - quiet clicks when the relay is triggered. But they are almost not audible outside the technical room with the door closed.
However, the placement of a well in a house or insulated hozblok rarely occurs. This is explained by the fact that to implement this option, you must first drill a well, let alone build a house.
We have the vast majority of developers do the opposite.
Option # 3 - Underground Caisson Well
The most popular type of containment over a private well is a well. It will be correct to call it a caisson, this is an adequate technical term.
Underground caisson is good because it does not clutter up the site, on the surface we will see only a small hatch, located flush with the ground.
It is much simpler to warm the underground room than the above-ground one, besides its lower part, located below the freezing depth, is in the zone of positive temperatures in winter, receiving some heat from the soil.
The problem is only waterproofing. Caisson can be purchased ready for installation or build yourself.
Factory caisson is completely ready for installation. It is required only to open a ditch and to lower the tank on the necessary mark.
In the caisson there are already the necessary technological openings, it remains to enter communications through a sealed cuff: a water pipe and an electrical cable.
Ready caissons are made of steel or polymeric materials. Metal tanks are stronger, they are not afraid of frost heaving, shocks, they can be installed in problematic soils prone to displacement.
Plastic caissons are not subject to corrosion, almost do not form condensate on the inner surface. Unfortunately, the factory caissons are expensive. But it can be mounted in a few hours, waterproofing issues are solved reliably.
Caisson really build and independently.Most likely, it will cost much cheaper than the factory. It may be stronger. However, time and effort will have to spend a lot.
The simplest option is to bury a pair of reinforced concrete well rings into the ground, covering them with a lid and a hatch with a neck on top.
The bottom will have to concreted. It is not easy to make a reliable waterproofing of reinforced concrete caisson. If you do it outside, it is better to use rolled bituminous material or high-quality mastic.
However, it will be necessary to dig out a too large excavation in order to have access to the walls of the well.
You can make the insulation from the inside, carefully staking the seams and smearing the inner walls, bottom and “ceiling” of the caisson with a polymer-cement composition.
To build a caisson on their own can not only from the factory rings. The design can be monolithic, brick (need a well-baked red brick), small-sized concrete blocks can be used. Decommissioned steel barrel is also suitable.
Dimensions of well shielding
What should be the size of the caisson above the well? It depends on where the equipment will be installed. If in the house, the dimensions of 80x80 cm are sufficient for the installer to “turn around” by lowering the pump.
When placing a pumping station or a separate membrane tank in the caisson, we recommend adding 50 cm from both sides to the dimensions of the equipment (conventionally front and side). It is better, of course, if it is more than place for service.
If we talk about concrete wells: the diameter of typical reinforced concrete rings is 90, 150 and 200 cm. 90 cm is the minimum possible size for a caisson without equipment, 150 cm is for a building with equipment of moderate dimensions.
In a round two-meter well, a rather large individual pumping station or hydroaccumulator of 200 liters will fit. The height of the caisson is the height of a person or two typical concrete rings.
We also mention that in areas with severe winters, the bottom of the caisson should be located at least 15 cm below the depth of soil freezing.Even better, all its lower third will be located in the non-freezing zone.
Warming the upper part is necessary, it is better to do it outside, but you can also from the inside. Any heat-insulating material that does not suffer from moisture is suitable, extruded polystyrene foam is ideal.
Ensuring casing tightness
Into the well casing, which supplies the house with drinking water, neither dust nor condensate generated in the caisson, nor rain and melt water, should get into the casing.
If this happens, harmful microorganisms can get into the clean underground source from the surface and “cure” it will be difficult and expensive.
To protect the well is the tip - a special steel cover, equipped with technological holes for the passage of communications and a reliable hook for the suspension of the pump.
The cap is selected according to the diameter of the casing, it has a rubber crimping cuff sealing the casing.The water pipe and electrical cable are also inserted through hermetic seals.
We do not recommend cutting the casing close to the caisson floor. It is better to leave a segment with a height of 25-40 cm above the surface of the concrete. First, it will be more convenient to mount the pump with a tip. Secondly, with a small flooding of the caisson in the wellbore will not get water.
Using a downhole adapter
Pavilion or caisson best protect the source of water supply. However, both of these solutions are not cheap.
If we are talking about a solid country house and a vast area, the noticeable financial costs of setting up the well are undoubtedly justified.
But what should a developer who does not have an infinite budget do, build a poor rural house or a modest summer cottage? For arranging a well in the country there is an economical alternative solution - a downhole adapter.
With it, a water pipe coming from a house can be inserted directly into the well casing. No caisson needed.
However, if necessary maintenance, the adapter will have to dig, because it is in the ground. But the need for this rarely arises.
The downhole adapter is a collapsible fitting, consisting of two parts: external and internal. The outer part is located outside the casing and serves to connect to the water pipe that goes into the house.
The pipe from the pump is connected to the mating interior. Both parts of the adapter, connecting on the casing, have a radial shape that repeats the diameter of the barrel. Elements are connected through a double hermetic seal.
The adapter should be placed below the depth of soil freezing and installation should be done with great care.
The casing pipe remains on the ground, it is left low protruding above the ground level. A cover is mounted on top into which an electrical cable is inserted to power the submersible pump.
In severe frosts, the cold will penetrate inside the well through the casing.Therefore, if the winter temperatures fall below -20 ° C, we recommend that the well be covered for the winter with spruce paws, straw or otherwise insulated.
The only, but weighty advantage of the adapter over the caisson is cheapness.
Among the shortcomings: the complexity of equipment maintenance, poor security from mechanical damage to the electrical cable, less reliable pump suspension (it does not rest on the cable, but on the water pipe alone).
And yes, equipment for water supply can only be installed in the house. You can install the adapter yourself, but you will need a special key with a long nozzle, some technical skills and a lot of patience.
In conclusion, we say that a “cheap and angry” downhole adapter is really cheap. However, it can not always be applied and does not provide the same level of source protection and durability as the caisson.
We hope that from the foregoing it is clear in general terms how to equip a well with your own hands.Let us give our readers some useful tips:
- If the groundwater level on the site is high and is located above the depth of soil freezing, it is better to have a protective room on the surface, and not under the ground. Or use an adapter.
- In a house with year-round living try to place water supply equipment in the main building: plenty of space, warm and dry. It is convenient to maintain, the equipment will last longer.
- Equipment for a home with seasonal living is better placed in an underground caisson. An unheated house will freeze, and a positive temperature will remain in the caisson. By the way, you need to remember to drain the water in a country house for the winter, if you do not live in it for more than a week.
- In problematic soils (heaving, with inclusions of rubble with sharp ribs, in quicksand), it is desirable to drive the water pipe from the house to the caisson or adapter in a protective casing. The electric cable is always placed in the protective tube of the HDPE.
- Connecting hydraulic equipment to the system is best done through shut-off valves with collapsible connections. If necessary, it will simply be serviced or replaced.
- Do not forget that regardless of the type of equipment in the wiring diagram should include a check valve after the pump and a coarse filter in front of the accumulator.
In addition, during operation it is necessary to monitor the pressure level in the pneumatic element of the membrane tank. Check monthly, if necessary, should be pumped up.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Finally, videos that vividly show the process of arranging an underground water source.
The process of self-construction of insulated caisson from concrete rings and the input of water supply to the house:
Cost-effective well construction - self-installation of a downhole adapter:
Proper arrangement of the source of individual water supply guarantees excellent water quality and eliminates problems with the repair and periodic maintenance of downhole equipment..