Household sewage pumping stations: types, design, installation examples
The topic of sewage can seem unpleasant only to an inexperienced homeowner and only at first glance. As soon as there are problems with sewage, their elimination becomes the most important task.
If the trouble with drains are regular, it makes sense to revise the original project for errors. To eliminate them, you may need a sewage pumping station.
What is KNS?
SPS or sewage station, this device for the forced removal of solid and liquid effluent. Such devices are most often used for industrial purposes.
But there are a number of KNS specifically designed for domestic use. They are usually installed in private households with autonomous sewage or where it is necessary to ensure the transportation of waste to the riser of the centralized sewer system.
Models of domestic CNS may vary considerably in appearance, but their design and principle of operation are quite similar. Such designs are a sealed container designed to collect waste. The high degree of tightness of the reservoir is an important requirement to protect the groundwater from pollution by drains. It provides a nozzle system, as well as a special pump designed for pumping fecal matter.
Works sewer pump station as follows. The drains flow into the storage tank. With the help of a sewage pump, wastewater, including solid accumulations, is moved through pipes for further disposal, for example, into a central sewer riser, into a tank of a decontamination machine, etc.
KNS are completed with pumps of various types, among which there are both submersible and surface cantilevered or self-priming.
Submersible, as the name implies, is lowered into the tank with sewage. Usually these are very strong units that can work for a long time in an aggressive environment. For such pumps, there is no need to equip a place on the surface, just as additional pipes are not needed to connect them to the system.
But the maintenance of a submersible pump can be somewhat difficult. The unit is cooled by the fluid in which it is located, it is not often necessary for these devices to be repaired and THAT such devices need. Moreover, submersible models of sewage pumps can work even in very cold environments. For them, the so-called dry installation is considered permissible.
Self-priming pumps have a wide clearance for the passage of the pumped medium, they are recommended for use with significantly polluted drains.The motor with flange mounting makes it easier to operate and maintain devices of this type. Some types of self-priming pumps are equipped with a special heating element that allows you to use them even at temperatures below zero.
Cantilever pumps are mainly used for industrial treatment plants. For the installation of such a device requires a detached foundation. Console sewage pumps are considered extremely reliable and convenient, but it is better to entrust their installation and connection to an experienced specialist.
In household KNS one or two pumps can be used, it all depends on the specific situation. If it is necessary to grind the solid fractions of waste, use pumps with a cutting mechanism. It should be understood that such a mechanism is not an omnivorous meat grinder. A piece of rags accidentally dropped into a drain can cause serious blockage and even breakdown of the pump.
Special attention is given to the so-called mini CNS - these are pumping stations of relatively small size, designed to be connected to only one object, usually to the toilet.They are a complex of a small storage tank and a pump with a cutting mechanism. Such sewage stations are usually installed directly under the toilet.
When forced disposal of sewage is necessary
Usually, the removal of human waste from the sewer system occurs naturally under the influence of gravitational forces. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to practically organize this process at a sufficiently effective level. Here are a few reasons why a homeowner should consider (or consider) installing a forced waste disposal system:
- the situation is such that the level of the main sewage flow is higher than the point of waste discharge;
- the waste discharge point is too far from the main sewage flow;
- sewers move along sewer pipes too slowly;
- sewage system is often clogged due to errors made during its installation.
Some of these problems may be caused by blemishes when designing a sewer system or its improper re-planning. But it also happens that, due to the peculiarities of the building configuration or the relief of the site, the SPS becomes the only choice for the normal operation of the sewer system. Sometimes installing a KNS is simply cheaper than completely reworking the sewers, eliminating mistakes made earlier.
Additional elements for mounting the CND
SPS, as well as industrial sewage stations, are equipped with special float sensors placed in the storage tank. They transmit to the control unit information about the level of sewage in the drive. The pump is turned on and off in automatic mode, which facilitates its operation and prolongs its service life.
In industrial models, such sensors are installed at four different levels. They reflect a safe state when the reservoir tank is nearly empty, the levels at which the pump should be turned on or off, and the level of overflow.If the last set of float sensors is activated, this indicates a serious breakdown in the system and requires the immediate intervention of specialists.
In addition to these sensors, it is also recommended to provide the KNS with a source of backup power and a pressure gauge. Special pressure sensors may be needed. Do not interfere with an additional set of valves. The ground part of the CNS is usually hidden under a metal pavilion, but you can also arrange another shelter. It should protect the device from the weather and unwanted extraneous interference in the work of the complex mechanisms.
Periodically, both the pump itself and the pipes connected to the SPS should be cleaned for the prevention of breakages and blockages. It is best to pre-purchase a set of special equipment that will facilitate the implementation of this task. Another important point is the manual control mechanism of the sewage pumping station.
In normal operation, it is not needed, since all devices are turned on and off automatically. But manual control is very useful if the KNS breaks or clogs. When starting a new sewage station, manual control is also used.
Features of the installation of the sewer station
Installation of a pumping station is a laborious and rather difficult task. The capacity of the CNS should be set at the correct depth. Then the soil is poured around the container and rammed in such a way that its density is as close as possible to the natural density of the surrounding soil.
In general, the installation of a large sewage pumping station can be represented in the form of the following steps:
- Digging trench.
- Laying sand pillows.
- Soil tamper.
- Installing the storage tank in the pit.
- Connection of all the pipelines required for the operation of the pumping station.
- Install a sewage pump.
- Setting the operation of the float sensors.
- Leading electrical cables, grounding arrangement.
- Backfilling and tamping soil.
- Installation of protective cover.
The depth of the pit should be about half a meter greater than the height of the storage tank together with the lid. The fact is that the KNS cover should protrude approximately one meter above the surface, but a one and a half meter thick sand cushion should be placed at the bottom of the pit. When determining the depth of the pit, these parameters should be considered.
The width of the pit for the KNS must be such that not only does the tank fit freely, but there is also room for the necessary installation work. Of course, digging a too spacious pit does not make sense, it’s just unnecessary work. The excavation pit is usually covered with layers of sand and each layer is compacted in such a way that its density corresponds to the density of the surrounding soil not less than 90%.
Float sensors, as mentioned earlier, are installed on four levels:
- the normal degree of filling is 0.15-0.3 m from the bottom of the tank;
- level off pumping equipment - 1.65-1.80 m;
- the level at which the sewage pump turns on is approximately 3.0-3.5 m;
- capacity overflow level - 4.5-5.0 m.
After all the elements are installed, it is necessary to check the operation of the system.
To do this, you need a certain amount of ordinary pure water. Liquid can be taken from a water supply system or source of autonomous water supply. If for some reason there is no such possibility, water is simply brought in the tank.
To test the water is fed into the storage tank until it is full, then the water is drained into the sewer. At the same time, they monitor the operation of the float sensors and the functioning of the pumping equipment, which should be switched on and off in automatic mode. At the same time check all connections for tightness.If a leak is detected, the connections should be re-sealed.
CNS service procedure
The operation of any device depends on timely maintenance, and sewage stations are no exception. It is not necessary to wait until the failure becomes apparent, it is better to conduct preventive examinations in a timely manner. Such forethought may later lead to significant savings, since minor and large repairs vary considerably in price.
Before starting maintenance work, the sewer station should be stopped and disconnected from the power supply. Then you need to completely relieve pressure inside the system, and also wait until the device is completely cooled.When working, you may need special working clothes, as well as other protective equipment: respirator, goggles, gloves, etc.
When servicing domestic sewage pumping stations, it is first recommended to visually inspect the device, check the operation of the shut-off valves. Then assess the condition of the pumps. Problems may be indicated by too high a noise level when pumping equipment is operating. Another alarming phenomenon is that the pump vibrates too much during operation.
If such dangerous signs are present, the pump can be removed, rinsed, cleaned, checked for its operation and, in the absence of breakdowns, re-installed in the SPS. Indicators on the control panel are also evaluated. Since solid particles of waste can accumulate inside the tank as sludge, periodic washing is performed not only by the pump, but also by the accumulator.
To do this, use plain water. It can be submitted using a hose.To remove dirt from the inside of the drive, you can use ordinary household brushes. But the use of household chemicals in such situations is not recommended. During flushing, care should be taken to prevent water from flowing into the pressure gauge or control panel.
Sewage pumps in such installations are usually mounted on a special pipe coupling. When carrying out preventive cleaning and flushing, it is important to properly dismantle the pump from such a coupling, and then make sure that the device is properly installed again. Another important node is a large trash collector. It should be examined and cleaned. During the test, all connections are checked for leaks. All fasteners should be tightened with a wrench.
Features of operation of sewer stations
When choosing a sewage station suitable for your home, you should remember that different models are designed for different operating conditions. For example, a mini KNS designed for connecting to a toilet bowl should not be used to remove drains from a kitchen sink or bathroom.
In addition, if the mini-KNS is designed to connect to a standard toilet bowl, most likely it will not be possible to use it together with a suspended toilet model. Careful attention deserves the proper operation of a sewage pump equipped with a shredder for solid waste.
Some owners believe that if the KNS has such a function, then you can send any solid garbage into the sewer system. This is a dangerous delusion. Of course, if some kind of garbage, such as personal hygiene products, falls into the toilet, the shredder will recycle them without much difficulty.
However, it is not designed to carry this kind of load all the time. The shredder must recycle mainly fecal waste that has a completely different density; it cannot be used as a garbage collector. A large amount of pollution, not intended for this technique, can quickly disable it.
Before acquiring a particular model of a CNS, it is necessary to carefully read its passport and technical specifications. Particular attention should be paid to the operating conditions of the device, for example, at what temperature the waste system is designed.Wastewater from the kitchen sink, bathroom, shower stall, as well as from an automatic washing machine or dishwasher can be quite hot.
It is necessary to take into account the permissible temperature of wastewater, established by the manufacturer for each specific model. Thus, sewage pumping stations, into which warm, but not too hot wastewater can be drained, are suitable for connecting to a shower stall, bathtub, toilet bowl, bidet, kitchen sink, etc.
However, if there is an automatic washing machine, you should choose a model of a sewage pumping station for the house, into which you can drain the waste water with a temperature of 90 degrees or higher. It should be borne in mind that the mode of operation of such equipment usually involves boiling.
All this also applies to the dishwasher, from which almost boiling liquid can flow into the drain. In addition to the current needs of the house, you should evaluate your plans so that you do not have to buy and install a new sewage station.If you intend to purchase a dishwasher in the future, it is better to immediately choose a SPS designed for drains with a high temperature.
Pay attention to the number and location of nozzles. For each new home appliance that needs to be connected to a sewer, which may appear in the future, there must be a corresponding connection. Otherwise, it will simply have nowhere to connect.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
An overview of the compact toilet sewer station is presented here:
This video shows a schematic of the installation process of a large CND:
Sewage station can significantly improve the life in the house. It is important to choose the right model of CNS and correctly install it. Proper operation and regular maintenance will ensure that there are no problems with this useful device for many years.