How to disassemble the word by composition?
The analysis of words by composition is called morphemicanalysis. He is one of the most complex types of any analytical work carried out with lexical units of the Russian language. Morphemes begin to be studied in primary school, but even in high school students there can often be problems with defining them within words. In order to facilitate the task, it is necessary to find out how to disassemble the word by composition.
Definition of morphemes
First of all, you should read it yourselfthe definition of the main morphemes of the Russian language. As a rule, the prefix, the root, the suffix and the ending are studied in the school. The root is called the main part of the word, which has a common meaning for all root words. This morpheme is the only obligatory (with the exception of some words), because in Russian there are no words that do not contain the root. The prefix and the suffix serve to form new words. Before the root is a prefix. The suffix is located after the root. Together with the root of the word they form the basis of the word (the word does not include the form-building suffixes). It should be noted that the presence of a suffix or prefix can change the meaning originally laid down by the root. Example: "raspberry - raspberry" or "go - they will go - they will drive in". Sometimes in the word there may be several suffixes or prefixes. Example: in the word "spoiled" suffixes are "ova" and "l". The ending is the part serving to form the connection of words in the sentence and new forms of the word. The ending can not change the original lexical meaning, and also form a new semantic unit. In addition, the ending is zero. Example: banana, pain, watermelon.
How to disassemble the word by composition: instruction
First of all, the analysis of the word by compositionbegins with the definition of the part of speech to which the word under analysis applies. It can be, for example, an adjective or a noun, a verb. Then you need to determine whether it is mutable. To do this, try to change the word by birth, number, case. If the word turned out to be mutable, then next to it you need to write down its original form. Example: "jar - bank".
- Ending. Then you need to select the ending. To do this, you need to change the word by gender, number or case several times. Example: "banana - no banana - I'll follow the banana". Variable letters at the end of the word and will be an ending. So, in the word "banana" the ending is zero.
- The basis. Now it is necessary to designate the basis of the word. As a rule, it should be emphasized by a straight line from the bottom of the word from the first letter to the end. If there are form-building suffixes in the word, they, just like the ending, do not form the basis of the word. In Russian, many words consist of only one basis. Example: yesterday, highway.
- Console. Now we need to find a prefix. To do this, you should choose the root words. Example: in the verb "to drive up" to allocate the prefix "under" help the following changed versions of the words: "to move - to call - to move - to go".
- Suffix. The suffix is defined as follows. It is necessary to remove this morpheme from the word and make sure that the new lexical unit exists in the Russian language. Example: the word "locker" has the suffix "chic". But if it is deleted, it turns out an independent noun "closet".
- Root. Making the analysis of the word by composition, the root of the word should be highlighted at the very last. In Russian, it can have a different appearance in single-root words. At the root can often change the letters or even "disappear." Example: "went - came", "blackness - black". In order to determine the root of the word, it is necessary to select related words, and then find the common part in them. Example: "scaffolding - bridge - bridge". In this case, the root of the word is the root "bridge".
Well, now you know how to make out the word bycomposition. But in order to do it confidently, one theory is not enough. The main thing here is practice. The more you sort out the words by composition, the sooner you learn to do the morphological analysis. Take any textbook on the Russian language and start right now!