Overview of the water pump "Gnome": device, characteristics and features of operation
Electric pumps under the “Dwarf” brand are produced by Russian and Belarusian manufacturers. This type of pumping equipment is known for its wide functionality, reliability and ease of operation. Designed water pump "Gnome" for pumping polluted and clean water.
The unit is used in everyday life, industry, housing and utilities, agriculture.
Specifications and labeling
Pumps of the “Dwarf” line belong to the class of one-stage vertical submersible pumps of monoblock construction. They are designed for pumping drainage and groundwater containing no more than 10% solid mechanical particles, the density of which does not exceed 2.5 thousand kg / m3. Transfer of fractions no more than 5 mm is allowed. The temperature of the pumped liquid is up to + 35ºС, and for models with “Tr” marking - up to + 60ºС.
The housing of the submersible electric pump is made of plastic, cast iron or steel. Impellers and engine cover are made of cast iron. The equipment is available with different types of motor, depending on which determines the ability to be powered from the household electrical network with a voltage of 220 V or from a three-phase industrial with a voltage of 380 V and a frequency of 50 Hz.
The package includes an electric pump: power cord 10 m in length for a three-phase or cord and starting device for a single-phase power supply network. Most manufacturers for a fee and at the request of the buyer include a machine to protect the motor operating from the network 380 V.
Specifications such as power, power supply parameters, performance (transfer rate), maximum head, as well as the size and weight of the equipment depend on the specific model. You can compare the technical characteristics of the “Gnome” pumps using the table:
All pumps manufactured under the brand "Gnome" are labeled. Knowing what lies behind the numbers and symbols, you can easily understand what characteristics and features of the pump. The word "Dwarf" is an abbreviation and stands for: G - dirty water, H-pump, O - single-stage, M - monoblock.
The first digit in the label indicates the performance in m3/ hour, second - head in meters. For example, “Dwarf 10-10 Tr” is a pump having a capacity of 10 m3 / hour and a head of 10 m. The designation “Tr” means that this equipment can pump water with a temperature of up to +60 C. The letter “D” means that the equipment is equipped with a float switch (level sensor).
Pumps labeled with the abbreviation "Ex" belong to the explosion-proof group. Such units are capable of pumping water with impurities of petroleum products, which contain no more than 3% sulfur.In emergency cases, the pump can be used to work in an environment containing up to 100% crude oil products.
Overview of manufacturers and model range
Today, the production of submersible pumps “Gnome” is carried out by three Russian plants - “Odintsovo Pumping Plant”, INL No. 1 and “Livgidromash”, and one Belarusian - “Polesielectromash”.
The highest quality equipment is considered "Odintsovo pump plant." The units of this release are of high build quality and low scrap rate. The disadvantages of these products include the high cost of pumps in comparison with analogues and expensive repairs.
Pumps produced by the INL No. 1 have a lower cost, but have several disadvantages: poor build quality, manufacturing of some leading plastic parts, and high sensitivity to fluctuations in the electrical network.
Polesyeelektromash and Livgidromash products are rarely found on the Russian market, but experts agree that this equipment meets high requirements.
A variety of model range of electric pumps "Gnome" will easily allow you to choose the best equipment for the needs of the consumer. All existing models can be divided into four groups:
- Household pumps.Used for pumping dirty water in private households. This group includes the Mini - Gnome 7-7 and 7-7D series pumps, as well as models with a capacity of up to 16 m3/ h When it comes to buying a pump for domestic needs, it refers to the equipment of this particular group.
- Powerful pumps. Used in industry, construction, utilities. Productivity - from 25 to 600 m3/ h These pumps can be controlled using a control station, which is purchased separately and installed by specialist installers.
- Explosion proof pumps. Involved in the oil and gas industry, energy and chemical industries. Pumps are capable of pumping explosive liquids.The cost of such equipment is very high.
- Self-cooled pumps.Operated with both full and partial immersion. The peculiarity of these pumps is the presence of a special design of the body, which is called the "cooling jacket".
The most widespread models are Gnome 10-10 and 10-10D, produced for work from a single-phase power grid and used in the field of private construction, in country houses and country sites.
Universal unit "Gnome"
The “Dwarf” electric pumps are rightly called universal. The simplicity of design and operation, as well as maintainability and simplicity in maintenance have made these pumps very popular. They are used in a wide variety of industries to perform a wide range of tasks. Private users usually use “Dwarf” to:
- pumping flood waters from the basement and flooded areas;
- draining construction pits, trenches, pools;
- groundwater drainage from suburban areas and agricultural land;
- discharges used water appliances in the absence of a central sewer system;
- pumping fluid in autonomous KNS and wastewater treatment plants;
- purification of silted wells;
- supply of clean water from well mines.
It should be remembered that the "Dwarf" pumps can not be used for pumping fecal waste! In the case of pumping water contaminated with petroleum products or crude oil, the unit can work no more than 5 hours.
Device and principle of operation
The design of the electric pump "Gnome" is a monoblock, which consists of two main parts: the pump component and the electric motor.
The pumping part includes:
- Working wheel;
- pump casing.
For pumping fluid with a large number of inclusions, as well as with cement or clay slurry, the lower part of the body is equipped with a filtering mesh.
The “Dwarf” pump is equipped with an asynchronous type electric motor, which consists of a stator, a rotor, a bearing system and a cover. The function of cooling and lubrication of bearings assigned to the oil, which filled the cavity of the engine. At the top of the motor there is an elastic rubber cuff, compensating for the expansion of the cooling medium in the case of heating. The motor itself is cooled directly with underground water during the transfer process.
The rotor speed for all models of "Dwarfs" is 3000 revolutions per minute. Thermal safety devices are integrated into the stator, preventing the unit from operating during overheating. If the pump was interrupted by them due to over temperature, the pump should be disconnected from the network and wait for it to cool.
The pump is started using a starter located on the power cord.The equipment is equipped with a capacitor and a circuit breaker that protects the motor from overload. Before starting, the pump unit must be fully or partially (models with a "cooling jacket") immersed in water. Work on the "dry" should not exceed 15 minutes.
The principle of operation of the pumps "Gnome" is based on the use of centrifugal force, which is created by the impeller. After switching on, water is sucked into it through the filter screen, then moves to the outlet along the channels and is pushed into the discharge port.
Preparation of the pump to work
Before starting the installation of the pump, it is necessary to carry out an external inspection for the presence of mechanical damage to the housing and power supply cable. An oil check in the oil chamber is also required. To do this, the electric pump must be placed horizontally and unscrewing the top plug, carefully turn the unit around its axis by 45 degrees. Oil must flow through the drain hole.
The design of the pump "Gnome" suggests two options for its immersion in the working environment:
- mobile, using a flexible polymer cord;
- stationary, using a hard cable.
Please note that the electric pump must be grounded, and the power cord must be reliably protected from mechanical damage.
Electric pumps in three-phase variation are allowed to be connected only through a circuit breaker equipped with a thermomagnetic release. This is necessary to protect the motor. Connection diagram of the pump to the 380 V power network:
After checking the pump for oil, mechanical damage and grounding, it is necessary to remove the plug from the socket. Then attach a flexible hose to the pump and fasten it on both sides with hose clamps. The diameter of the hose must be selected on the basis of the size of the discharge pipe. In the course of work, a free discharge from the hose should be provided, its fractures and bends should be excluded.
When lowering the “Dwarf” electric pump into the pit by means of a flexible or rigid cable, it is necessary to control that the unit is located strictly in an upright position, sinceonly in this way can the electric motor be fully cooled. Do not lower the pump using a rope or power cord!
When installing the "Gnome" on a sandy or muddy bottom, or in the case when the condition of the bottom surface cannot be determined visually, you need to take care of the substrate, which can be, for example, a thick rubberized mat. If there is no substrate, it is recommended to hang the pump a few centimeters from the bottom. After the pump is immersed in liquid, it starts up. The electric pump must stand vertically, the deviation in one direction or another should not exceed 10 degrees.
Security measures during installation and operation
The operation of the “Gnome” pumps is allowed only within the pressure characteristic, which depends on the model. Do not bend the hose, turn and lower the pump to increase the head.
The basic rules of electrical safety that must be observed during installation, operation and maintenance of the pump:
- If the power supply is partially or completely cut off, the pump connection pattern should exclude the possibility of spontaneous start of the electric motor.
- The “Dwarf” pump must be completely immersed in the pumped liquid.Exception: partial immersion is possible for models with a “cooling jacket”.
- Do not operate the pump with a damaged casing or power supply cord.
These rules should not be neglected and then the pump will serve you as long as possible.
Maintenance of Gnome Pumps
Timely and properly carried out maintenance of the electric pump will significantly prolong its service life and save from damage, and the owner from costly repairs. Independently carry out maintenance only if it is not possible to do this at a service center. Maintenance during intensive use of equipment should be carried out 1 time per month. This is a recommendation of all manufacturers of Gnome pumps. Monthly MOT includes:
- control of the level and quality of oil;
- check for kinks on the hose, insulation breaks on the electric cord;
- inspection for mechanical damage to the housing;
- measurement of the insulation resistance of the cable and the motor, which should be more than 0.5 ohms.
Oil filling is carried out every 250 hours of operation, as well as when water and other foreign liquids and fractions are found in the oil. To replace the oil, it is necessary to install the unit on a flat surface and unscrew the plug in the bearing shield. Drain off unsuitable oil and add new oil. For complete replacement, about 300 ml of oil is needed.
After using the pump to pump contaminated fluid with a large amount of mechanical impurities, it is necessary to start the pump for a few hours to pump clean water to clean all internal elements.
If the pump has not been used for a long time, then before starting it is necessary to check whether the impeller rotates: it should turn without application of force.
Which "Dwarf" is better to choose?
A large assortment of pumps under the “Gnome” brand often puts an ordinary consumer at a dead end, which pump to choose? In order to choose the right electric pump, it is necessary to take into account two main factors:
- Specifications.The most important parameters are performance and pressure.
To date, the most popular pumps "Gnome" are models: Mini Gnome 7-7, 10-10, 16-16 and 20-25. The first pump is purchased by gardeners for watering small areas. The second and third electric pumps have universal characteristics and can be used both for irrigation of the site and the water supply of a small house with 1-3 water users, and for draining basements, pits and trenches in private construction.
The “Gnome 20-25” pump is a more powerful unit used in private households infrequently, but if you decide to buy this particular pump, then pay attention to the modification in the “cooling jacket”.Most experts recommend buying pumps equipped with a level sensor.
If you plan to use the "Dwarf" to supply clean water from a well, be sure to pay attention to its overall dimensions before purchasing. Remember that the pump is installed strictly vertically, so it can not be used for wells with a small debit.
Advantages in comparison with analogues
If you compare "Dwarfs" with analogues presented on the Russian market, you can highlight many advantages:
- the presence of a filter that is easily removed and cleaned;
- maintainability, availability of spare parts and their low price;
- wide range of models, the ability to choose the best option;
- ease of operation and installation, to work with the pump does not require special skills;
- the ability to abandon the installation of valves and valves;
- lack of vibration and noise;
- the presence of a circuit breaker that protects against short circuit and overload, so you do not need constant monitoring during operation.
It is worth noting that among the pumps that can be used for pumping dirty water, "Gnome" has practically no analogues. This factor, as well as high quality and affordable price - the reasons for the high popularity of these pumps in Russia and the CIS.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video about the submersible pump unit “Gnome” of the industrial category:
Device and maintenance of the electric pump "Gnome 20-25":
Technical characteristics of the modification "Gnome 10-10":
Submersible centrifugal pump "Gnome" - the best option for pumping dirty water. It has many advantages, and a wide range of model range allows you to choose a model for specific needs.
The pump allows in the shortest possible time to pump out dirty water in the event of an emergency, and it can also be used as a stationary pump in a water treatment and water supply system.