Pedagogical technologies: classifications and types
The concept of "technology" was borrowed from the sphere of production processes, but in pedagogy acquired special significance. Pedagogical technologies are:
- The process of achieving professional excellenceteacher with the indication of methods, techniques and sequence of their use to obtain the optimal result in their activities. Professional-pedagogical technology can be used by beginning teachers with strict adherence to the instructions of the developer, but often undergoes modifications due to the personality characteristics of the performer.
- Set of ways and means of organizationpedagogical process, built on a specific algorithm in order to obtain the expected result. Algorithm is the main feature of technology, and ways and means can undergo changes in the practice of the teacher. The expected result can be achieved or even exceed the planned one, which depends on the teacher's personality and on the categories of children with whom pedagogical technology is realized.
Classification of pedagogical technologies by types of activity of the teacher and students:
- Technologies of organization of communication. Include receptions for the organization of interaction between the child and the adult in order to create the necessary conditions for the development of the individuality and personality of the students.
- Pedagogical technologies of organizationcognitive activity, containing effective methods of motivation of educational activity, use of mechanisms of development and stimulation of cognitive abilities.
- Technologies of diagnostic and prognosticactivities based on the development of the analytical abilities of teachers, the ability to use diagnostic methods for planning and shaping the forecast of pedagogical work.
- Pedagogical technologies of innovative activity aimed at developing new programs, new approaches in education, creating conditions for pedagogical creativity.
- Technologies of educational organization, helping each child to maximize personal potential in the development process.
Types of pedagogical technologies by structure:
- Process technology, in whichthe pedagogical plan for the realization of the goal is consistently reflected. The whole process is divided into stages that are consistently implemented in the activities of the teacher. Each stage has a time frame, which allows you to schedule the time to achieve the expected result.
- Formative technology, where all stages, conditions or techniques are used outside the strict time sequence.
- Developing pedagogical technologies thatare part of a large process and do not have an end result. For example, in a preschool institution, literacy is taught within the limits of teaching children sounds, and instruction in correct writing is realized only in primary school.
Pedagogical technologies in terms of coveragestructures of the pedagogical system can be divided into meta-technologies, macro-technologies, mesotechnologies and microstructures. Meta-technologies can encompass transformation of the entire education system, whereas the technology of organizing the lesson or the work of the workshop in a separate school is related to microtechnological developments. Technologies of a separate branch of education are related to macro technologies, and those that are aimed at transforming the school or a separate educational level (primary, secondary level) of the school, to meso-technologies.
Pedagogical technologies allow the teacher's activity to be more organized and predictable, to receive high results in the process of teaching children of different levels of development.