Power LED lights table. What is the power factor of LED lamps
The value is measured in watts. It was she who became the main indicator in the preference of LEDs to other sources. That's because with the same power consumption, the luminous flux of the diodes is many times higher than other types of lamps.
The choice of power LED lamp should be due to some aspects:
requirements for the perception of lighting (recreation, work, training, etc.);
type of room or territory (open, closed, dark, illuminated by natural light, etc.);
terrain features (chemical laboratories, operating rooms, home rooms, production areas, etc.).
Power factor is a value that indicates how distorted the current shape is compared to the input voltage.The measurement of this value is made in relative units. The coefficient can be equal to 1, but no more. In the bulk, the power factor of LED lamps is in the range from 0.5 to 0.95.
Directly from this indicator will depend on the level of electricity consumption, but quite tricky. Household ordinary consumer pays only for the active power consumed and payment for electricity for lamps with the same power, but different power factors will be the same. Paying for a bad power factor accounts for companies that supply electricity, since most of the reactive power is allocated in the supply wires. That is why the state imposes restrictions on the power factor. According to GOST R55705-2013, LED lamps with a power not exceeding 8 W must have a power factor of at least 0.7, from 8 to 20 W - 0.85, and over 20 W - at least 0.9.
Unfortunately, the Russian market is flooded with light bulbs with a power factor significantly lower than that required by the Russian GOST. The production and sale of such lamps is a violation of Russian law. .
In this article: how are LED lamps different from “Ilyich lamps”; on what factors depends on the life of the LED lamp; what types of LED lights exist; details on choosing an LED lamp; A comparative table of the dependence of light radiation on the power of three types of lamps.
Compared to conventional household lamps - with incandescent and fluorescent - most of us know very little about LED electrical equipment. No, ordinary LEDs are present in everyday life for a long time, telling us about switching on household appliances or flashing colorful lights on the New Year tree, but how can you light up a room or a street - are the LEDs so small? I propose to carefully study the LED lighting from all sides, because in the coming years these lamps will be installed in most of the lamps inside and near our houses.
The cost of electricity is less - more light
In the previous article on LED lamps, their main characteristics, including the luminous efficiency, were briefly discussed - let's examine it more closely. So, any electric luminaires convert the electrical energy supplied to them into light radiation, visible to the human eye and measured in lumens.The higher the light output, the more efficient these lights.
Let's compare LED lamps and “Ilyich lamps”. Two decades earlier, to improve illumination, households replaced, for example, a 100 watt incandescent bulb with a more powerful 150-200 watt or installed lamps with several bullets, in any case increasing power consumption. The ratio between the energy consumed and the light efficiency of incandescent lamps is 1 watt on the order of 12 lumens. It is possible to increase the light output of such lamps only by raising the heating temperature of the tungsten filament, however this will seriously reduce their already short lifetime - a regular 100 W lamp cannot shine for more than 1000 hours, since heating destroys the filament. The only way to increase the service life is to lower the already low efficiency, not exceeding 15%. For example, by lowering the efficiency value to 4% by reducing the voltage consumed by the lamp, it is possible to increase its service life a thousandfold - but to shine such a lamp will be completely dim.
Modern LED lamps for each watt of electricity consumed give at least 100 lumens, the intensity of the luminous flux they generate is about 10 times higher than that of incandescent lamps.For example, LED spotlights are more efficient and less energy consuming than their counterparts with an incandescent lamp. The light output of an LED lamp depends on the type and temperature of the LEDs, the characteristics of the power supply, as well as its design - optical and light-scattering elements located on the lamp base.
To achieve maximum light output lamp equipment only high-quality LEDs are not enough. The manufacturer must build the most effective thermal regime inside it - if the temperature of the LEDs in the active region (recombination zone of electrons on the crystal surface) increases by 10 ° C, then the luminous flux of such a lamp will decrease by 2.5%. In other words, the LED lamp generating 100 lumens of light, with heating in the recombination zone of electrons around 25 ° C, can be heated up to 100 ° C in the active zone after installation in a closed luminaire - in this case the intensity of its radiation will decrease to 80 lumens.
The directivity of light radiation. Incandescent and luminescent lamps, when installed in lamps, generate a uniform luminous flux in all directions — such lighting can be focused in one direction only with a lampshade or reflector.The light emission of LEDs is always directed only in one direction, therefore, LED lamps are equipped with an optical element (secondary optics), which changes the linear direction of the light flux from each LED to the desired angle, which allows for some light scattering.
The linearity of the luminous flux produced by an LED lamp is at the same time an advantage and a disadvantage of lamps of this type - on the one hand, lumens are not wasted and only illuminate the necessary zones, which allows lamps to be installed with lower power. On the other hand, the construction of lighting with LED lamps must be treated especially responsibly, because the incorrect placement of lighting devices will lead to the formation of excessively illuminated and too dark areas in the room.
How long will the LED lamp last
Different manufacturers talk about the service life of 30 000-100 000 hours, i.e. in the first case the lamp will last more than 8 years, in the second - more than 27 years, subject to the daily operation of the lamp for 10 hours. As mentioned above, the service life of LED lamps depends on the similar characteristics of the LED - consider them in more detail.
The first criterion affecting the life of the LED is the quality of the LED chip, the homogeneity of its structure. During operation, the crystal degrades for two reasons - as a result of multiple violations of the crystal lattice and due to the migration of metal atoms that form the electrodes.
a) the design of a conventional LED: 1 - anode; 2 - cathode; 3 - conductor; 4 is a crystal; 5 - plastic lens
b) the design of a powerful LED: 1 - body; 2 - conductor; 3 - heat sink; 4 is a crystal; 5 - a lens; 6 - cathode
In those parts of the crystal where the crystal lattice suffered the greatest damage, electricity is consumed only with the release of heat, that is, without light radiation. The exact causes of this defect have not been established, it is assumed that they are caused by static electricity.
Atoms of metals, penetrating into the structure of a crystal from electrodes, cause leakage currents - the movement of current in a crystal through metallic inclusions at the atomic level, while the light is not produced. With increasing current strength and temperature, the process of penetration of metal atoms into the crystal of the LED increases sharply, while the light emission and voltage drop - such a LED will quickly fail.This disadvantage is peculiar to inexpensive “overclocked” LED lamps that have high brightness with insufficiently efficient heat dissipation - unscrupulous manufacturers prefer using this relatively cheap way to improve the luminous characteristics of their products due to the relatively short service life of the product.
However, it is often the fault of not only the manufacturer, but also the user, that the temperature inside the LED lamp rises and, as a result, wear quickly. A radiator that removes heat from the LEDs must give it to the surrounding air or to the wall to which the lamp is attached. If you install several LED lamps in a suspended ceiling or close their flask with closely adjacent material, then even the highest quality lamp will quickly overheat due to lack of space for heat dissipation. By the way, the Armstrong LED ceiling lamps, made in the form of panels, will be installed in the false ceiling.
Poor heat dissipation during operation of the LED lamp also affects the phosphor covering the LED crystal and the optical system built into the LED.A bluish shade of light radiation caused by the predominance of direct radiation of the crystal becomes a sign of wear of the phosphor. The optical system, which is made mainly of silicone or plastic, loses its transparency, which lowers the light output of the LEDs.
It should be noted that the LEDs of the four largest world manufacturers in this field, namely the Japanese company Nichia, the Dutch Philips, the American Gree and the German Osram, have the highest performance characteristics and a long service life. Regarding the service life of LED luminaires, it should be noted that they can generate light for several decades, but the intensity of this radiation, for the reasons described above, will gradually decrease. After 25,000 hours (when working 10 hours a day - 6.5 years) of operation, the intensity of the luminous flux will decrease by 25-30%, which, however, meets the requirements of modern standards.
Types of LED lamps
Depending on their purpose, LED lamps are divided into street, industrial and household.
Radiating white light, designed to illuminate roads, parks and various architectural structures, they do not have a replaceable lamp. Their body serves two purposes - to provide maximum protection from dust and moisture, as well as to perform the function of a radiator that removes heat into the atmosphere.
Luminaires for offices (white light), housing and utilities and production facilities also do not have any replaceable elements and practically do not need to be serviced. They differ from street lamps in that they meet more stringent requirements for the quality of lighting, stable color reproduction and operating conditions.
Household LED lamps (yellow light) have low power (up to 20 W), their design and characteristics meet several requirements for the quality of lighting, fire and electrical safety, they differ in a decorative look. As a rule, household lamps are equipped with replaceable LED lamps. This group of lamps is the most diverse in its design and installation site - they can be embedded in the ceiling, floor, walls, furniture, hang, use for table lighting, as a night light, spot lights, etc.
LED lamp selection
The lifespan of an LED lamp depends on a number of characteristics incorporated in its production, therefore the name of the manufacturer is important when choosing - that is, only the price criterion does not determine its quality. Let us turn to the choice - how not to make a mistake by purchasing not a cheap LED lamp?
The usual selection criterion - lamp power in watts - in relation to LED lamps is not quite indicative, since it reports only its energy consumption per unit, and we need to know the amount of light emission.
Light emission, measured in lumens (lm), characterizes the ability of this lamp to illuminate a room. In some cases, the manufacturer “forgets” to indicate the amount of luminous flux on the lamp packaging, giving only a comparison with an incandescent lamp of a certain power - they say, this LED lamp fully corresponds to it in terms of the quality of lighting. I propose to use the table below to determine the relationship of light radiation with the power of the lamp.
It would seem that this data is enough to make the choice of an LED lamp, but this is not the case - it should be noted that LED lamps emit narrowly directed light, unlike fluorescent and filament lamps.Manufacturers extend the angle of illumination of the lamp with an optical element, indicating the angle of divergence of the light beam on the package. If the angle is 120 °, then this means the following: the luminous flux emitted by the lamp is halved as the light flow deviates from the central axis by 60 °. The radiation pattern of radiation at 120 ° divergence is wide enough - the space under such a lamp will be illuminated over a large area with almost the same brightness. LED lamps with a divergence angle from 20 ° to 30 ° are suitable only for zonal (accent) lighting, they are not suitable for ordinary room lighting.
Well, you think, you should choose LED lamps with 120 ° divergence - no matter how! Wide-angle lighting creates another problem - high brightness at a wide angle, which can cause discomfort for the eyes of households. For this reason, lamps with a wide angle of divergence can only be installed in ceiling and wall lamps, which comply with the requirement for a protective angle. Let me explain: the protective angle of the lamp is the largest angle at which the light source itself (lamp) does not fall into the direct view of the human eye, i.e. it does not illuminate the eye.The protective angle in the luminaires is created using lattice screens, placed at a certain distance from the lamp bulb.
The next indicator is the color temperature or, in other words, the color shade of the light radiation generated by this lamp. If everything was simple with incandescent lamps - their light was only yellow, in the case of fluorescent and LED lamps this was not the case. When choosing a lamp, be sure to pay attention to the color temperature indicated on the packaging in degrees Kelvin:
- from 2700 to 3500 ° K - the so-called “warm” light with a yellow tint, similar to the light radiation from incandescent lamps. At the same time, lamps with a color temperature of 2700 ° K emit a pronounced yellow light, but their luminous flux is not so strong, and having a color temperature of 3500 ° K, they are characterized by more powerful light emission with smaller shades of yellow (they produce more white light than yellow)
- from 4000 to 5000 ° K - neutral white light radiation, providing bright illumination. Such lamps are commonly used in offices, enterprises and public institutions;
- more than 6500 ° K - cold white light with high luminous efficiency.This group of lamps is used only for street lighting.
Finally, be sure to pay attention to the color rendering index (color rendering coefficient) indicated on the lamp packaging - its numerical value characterizes how much the color of the objects illuminated by this lamp will correspond to its natural color. The optimal value of this indicator will be the color rendition index from 70 and higher (or the degree of color rendition is not lower than 2A). Lamps for street lighting may have a lower index value - 60 (or 2B), but not lower.
There are several types of lamps on the market of light sources in Russia. The most common for domestic and industrial use are:
- incandescent lamps
- halogen lamps
- fluorescent lamps
- LED lamp
The most modern and economical are LED lamps, which have many advantages over other types of lamps, including the economy of electricity consumption. However, here we will not deal with their comparison, but will dwell in detail on the power and energy consumption of LED lamps.
LED lamp power and progress
The power of LED lamps is measured in watts, as is the power of any other electricity consumers, be it a kettle, a microwave, or an office printer. For simple and quick measurement of power consumption, you can use a device - wattmeter.
For an LED lamp, power is one of the most important characteristics affecting the "amount of light" produced by a lamp. However, it should be noted that this dependence is not direct and in the conditions of constant technological progress in the LED industry, manufacturers year after year achieve an increase in the light output of lamps from one watt of electrical power consumed. Simply put, this means that manufacturers of LEDs and LED lamps, developing high technologies, achieve that the 10 watt LED lamp, designed and produced a year ago, shines the same way as the newest and most modern 8 watt LED lamp. There is reason to believe that the development of the efficiency of LED lamps will continue.
Dishonest tricks of some manufacturers
In 2014, the most advanced lamps with a power consumption of, for example, 10 watts can provide a luminous flux of 1000 lumens, that is, 100 lumens of “light” per watt.At the same time, in 2012-2013, the best 10-watt LED bulbs shone only 700-800 lumens.
In other words, if you choose an LED lamp and among several options (manufacturers) you see the same power on the package, this does NOT mean that they will shine equally strongly. Lamps of the manufacturer shine the stronger, the greater the number indicated in the characteristic "luminous intensity" or "luminous flux", expressed in lumens.
However, there is another important problem: many dishonest manufacturers indicate on the packaging of lamps overestimated characteristics both in power and in terms of luminous flux. You can often find a situation when the lamp of a well-known manufacturer indicates the power, for example, 8 watts and a luminous flux of 650 lumens, and another from an unknown Chinese manufacturer with the same power of 8 watts, but with a significantly larger luminous flux of 1000 lumens. Obviously, the second light bulb is simply deceiving the customer with the overestimated light output characteristics.
Unfortunately, there are often other situations where the manufacturer on the package indicates that the lamp consumes 5 watts, but in reality, after the usual household measurement, it turns out that it consumes 7 or 8 watts, i.e.consumes more electricity than guaranteed by the manufacturer. Also, we often note situations when manufacturers overestimate relative indicators - for example, an analogue of power: on the packaging it is indicated that this 10-watt light bulb shines the same way as a regular 100-watt incandescent lamp, but this usually turns out to be a hoax and in fact This 10 watt bulb shines only like a normal 60 or 75 watt bulb at best.
You can protect yourself from this only by buying LED lamps from reliable and proven manufacturers who have earned trust. The names of such manufacturers are known to all: Verbatim, Philips, Osram, Supra and some others. In our online store we sell only high-quality lamps of famous and "honest" manufacturers.
Does the power of a LED lamp drop over time?
Long-term tests show that the power consumption of LED lamps during the entire service life remains almost unchanged. But over time, the luminous flux begins to fall, i.e. the lamp starts to shine less at the same power consumption. In good lamps, the drop in luminous flux by 10-20 percent occurs after 20-30 thousand hours of work, which guarantees several years of work with the declared characteristics.
LED Lighting Articles
This article is for those who first asked themselves a similar question and have no technical education. LED lighting is the lighting of something using relatively new light sources - LEDs. A LED is an industrially created crystal that, when connected to electricity, begins to emit light. Frankly speaking, the LED cannot be called a new light source, since It was invented already several decades ago, but it only began to actively develop and be used in all spheres of our life in the early 2000s, thanks to new discoveries in the technological field and a significant reduction in production costs.
Modern technologies do not stand still and scientific and technological progress does not neglect such a sphere of our life as lighting. The development is taking place both in the direction of increasing the lighting characteristics and in the direction of the appearance of additional adjacent technological devices that increase the usefulness of lamps and the lighting system in general. We are talking about the many varieties of LED lamps with built-in sensors.
We decided to make a review in which the most interesting reviews about LED lamps will be collected. We collected these reviews both from our customers (and continue to collect) and from the Internet - from various forums, blogs, thematic portals and other resources. Having received a large amount of data, we systematized it, depersonalized, and we got a certain set of interesting opinions and advice of real people using LED lamps at home, in the country, in the office, etc.
Customers of our online store often ask questions - which LED lamps are the best, which companies? What exactly are they better? Is it possible to trust the characteristics of the lamps indicated on the package? Can I buy LED lamps made in China? Can I use LED lamps in children's rooms? This is only part of the questions that buyers ask when choosing the best option for themselves. Moreover, such questions arise when the buyer already knows what type of lamps are needed and with what characteristics. In this article we will try to give answers to all these questions and avoid new puzzles for the consumer :-)
An LED is a semiconductor device that transforms electrical current into light.The LED has a common abbreviation - LED (light-emitting diode), which literally translated into Russian means "light-emitting diode." The LED consists of a semiconductor chip (chip) on a substrate, a housing with contact leads and an optical system. The direct emission of light comes from this crystal, and the color of visible radiation depends on its material and various additives. As a rule, there is one crystal in the LED case, but if it is necessary to increase the power of the LED or to emit different colors, it is possible to install several crystals.
This is undoubtedly the most important question, since the world today is on the threshold of a new era in lighting technology and one must be sure that LED lighting is not harmful to health. Today (2014) this issue cannot be considered thoroughly studied, since the period of introduction of LED lighting into a person's life is still quite small and the necessary amount of statistical data for analysis has not yet been accumulated. However, currently there is a huge amount of facts and opinions of professionals in this field, indicating the absence of any harm from LED lighting.
This article is for those who do not understand light bulbs, their base types and electricity in general, but already understands that using LED bulbs is much more economical than incandescent bulbs and even fluorescent ones (they are often called "energy-saving"). Finding the right LED lamps is very easy and we will help you make the right choice by following the instructions below. Or you can call us immediately and we will be happy to help with the choice.
In this article we will talk about the benefits of using LED lamps compared to fluorescent (often referred to as "energy saving"), halogen and incandescent lamps. In the second part, we present an economic calculation of the payback when replacing lamps with LED ones. The economic efficiency of LED lamps is so obvious that you will not need any special knowledge in order to independently draw conclusions.
One of the tasks that is often encountered during the deep repair or construction of residential and office premises is the level of sufficient lighting. In a situation where ordinary incandescent lamps are used as light sources,from experience, you can roughly determine the required number and power of light bulbs, but if you have an idea to make housing more modern and convenient, and at the same time also regularly save quite substantial amounts on lighting, then it makes sense to look at LED lighting. So, how many and which LED lamps do you need to install in order to be comfortable in the room?
In one of our articles, we talked about what LED is and how it developed. Now we want to elaborate on the current leaders of the industry - those who produce LEDs and LED lamps. This is not the same thing, since lamp manufacturers do not always make LEDs and vice versa, LED manufacturers are not always engaged in mass production of lamps based on them. According to the official data of IMS Research for February 2013, LED production is concentrated in China (more than 50%), then Taiwan (about 20%), South Korea (about 10%), Japan, USA, Europe and other regions (cumulative 20%) .
This article is a practical guide for those who are going to make global repairs in an apartment or house and ponders how to make the future lighting of the home comfortable, cozy, unique, easy to maintain, but economical and environmentally friendly.Today, indeed, there is something to ponder, since LED lighting is becoming quite inexpensive. The choice of power, size and appearance of the light sources is very rich and you can not limit your imagination. Where to start? How to approach the task? To do this, you need to understand exactly what you want to do, and then find the most effective solutions from both practical and economic points of view. This is not as difficult as it seems and we will be happy to help you with this.
In our online store you can buy LED lamps and LED lamps, selecting them for the task of lighting any object. But our activities are far from being limited to sales only - our team also includes highly experienced engineers in the field of design, production, installation and further operation of lighting control systems. Our partners are many engineering and design companies, with which we can implement projects for lighting systems of objects of any scale and complexity. This activity of our company is represented on the market as a project WLightiT.