Repair of ventilation systems: analysis of popular faults and how to eliminate them
Ventilation units update the air, clean it of harmful components, regulate humidity and maintain a comfortable microclimate. Without quality ventilation in the room there is always a risk to the health of all households.
Dirty stagnant air becomes a source of many troubles. Often it provokes problems with the respiratory system, exacerbates chronic diseases. To protect yourself and loved ones, it is important to notice problems in time and perform timely repairs to ventilation.
What could be the ventilation?
Being engaged in the repair of the system, you need to understand how it works, and on what principles it works. There are natural and forced type of ventilation of the premises.
Features of natural ventilation
All old buildings are equipped with natural ventilation exhaust systems. Air flows in them moving, obeying the laws of physics.They enter through the vents, the gaps in the windows and doors, move along the exhaust ducts connected to the common route and exit through the holes in the chimney on the roof of the building.
Natural ventilation is not expensive and easy to maintain, as it lacks mechanical equipment. But there are also significant shortcomings - it reacts to weather changes, it does not work well in the summer and does not give the possibility to control the air exchange.
Principles of forced airing
In modern construction uses heat-saving technologies, providing for the complete tightness of housing. Such conditions provide comfortable living, but impede the natural flow of air into the room.
Therefore, new homes are equipped with forced or mixed ventilation. Here the movement of flows is carried out mechanically with the help of a fan.The intake pipe is located at the bottom of the building, and from it the air ducts are connected to the common route from the apartments.
Ventilation consists of a set of devices that facilitate the removal of air over long distances:
- Ventilation channels. Flexible and rigid pipelines of plastic, galvanized sheet or aluminum foil, combined into one network with tees, turns and adapters. Provide air supply to isolated rooms.
- Fans. Axial and centrifugal devices with a paddle wheel. Serve and remove the gaseous mass, creating the desired pressure in the system.
- Air intake grille. Skips external air flows, protects equipment from precipitation and foreign objects.
- Air valve. Prevents external air from entering the room when the system is turned off.
- Filters. Protect the ventilated space and equipment from dust, debris, insects.
Temperature variations and chimney pressure do not affect the force system. Its efficiency depends only on the performance and power of the fan.
However, it is worth considering that such a device consumes a lot of electricity and needs regular maintenance. In the event of a breakdown, the repair of forced ventilation systems can "fly into a pretty penny."
Than bad ventilation is dangerous
Disruptions in the performance of the ventilation channels are not immediately noticeable, but sooner or later they result in unpleasant consequences.
The following symptoms are indicative of a malfunction of any type of air exchange:
- the smell of sweetness and rot appeared in the house;
- mold and fungus started to multiply actively, both in hard-to-reach places behind cupboards, kitchen sinks or tables, and in open areas;
- Condensate constantly forms on the surfaces of windows, walls and furniture;
- it becomes damp, cool in the room, the oxygen supply is not replenished, it is difficult to breathe;
- the system makes a hum and loud sounds, which causes discomfort;
- A smell of burning is heard from the ducts.
The safety of the operation of water heating and gas heating equipment depends on the quality of the ventilation. Ventilation channels are brought out and do not allow harmful combustion products to accumulate indoors.
When at least one of the symptoms of a malfunction occurs, you should immediately start diagnosing, identify and eliminate the causes of breakdowns in the system.
How to check the performance of the system
The easiest way to check the air duct in an apartment or house is to open a window in one of the rooms and bring a thin piece of paper to the ventilation. Under normal traction, he will hold onto the grid. Such a check is rather approximate.
Calculation tables and an anemometer, a special device that measures the speed of air movement, will help determine the system's performance. After measurements, the values of the instrument and the parameters of the hole cross section are entered in the table. The result is a figure showing the amount of air passing through the mine in an hour.
Normal values of air circulation in the apartment:
- kitchen - 60 m³ / h;
- bathroom and toilet - 25 m³ / h.
When there is a real flow rate of gases, it can be used to determine the volume. For this, no additional tables or reference books are needed.
The volume of air passed is calculated without tables using a simple formula:
Q = VxSx360
- S is the cross-sectional area of the hole;
- V - the indication taken from the anemometer.
It turns out that at a speed of 22 m³ / h and a cross-sectional area of 110 mm, the number of gases being passed in will be: 22х110х360 = 871.2 m³.
Major faults and remedies
Ventilation systems fail for various reasons. Often this is improper installation and operation, ignoring maintenance, the appearance of mechanical damage and corrosive processes, natural wear of parts and devices. All of them are fraught with typical malfunctions. Consider them in more detail.
The most common problem is insufficient air flow in rooms with natural ventilation.Its reason lies in the high tightness of the premises.
The natural system is designed for the flow of air from doors, wooden windows and other cracks, which we are trying to carefully eliminate during repairs. Tight plastic windows, unlike old wooden analogs, do not allow air, blocking all possibilities for its normal circulation.
The same applies to doors that impede its movement between rooms. Because of this, the windows are constantly accumulated condensate and mold stains.
The way to fix this problem is to cut small holes in the doors by installing grilles or decorative bushes in them. And also arrange regular through ventilation, install valves with microcirculation function on windows or walls.
The hinged valve for the window is fixed with short screws on the influx of the sash. The device is mounted into the wall by drilling an opening and attaching the case with a sealant.
Another problem - difficult exhaust. It can be caused by a garbage canal in the channel, or by insufficient power or compressor failure.
To fix this, you will need to clean the air ducts, replace / repair the compressor. The new device should be air-exchange in the amount of not less than 3 cubic meters per hour for each square of the area of the room.
The appearance of unpleasant odors from the ventilation duct cause leaks in the duct, corrosive processes, violation of the integrity of parts.
The way to get rid of the problem: to replace damaged soft inserts, interflange seals, repair or replace sections and elements of the air duct with defects. And also adjust the tightness of the connections.
There may be such a problem as a significant deterioration in air quality and increased resistance of the ventilation channels. Its reason lies in the accumulation of pollution in the duct, low efficiency filters.
The remedy is to maximally clean the ventilation duct from debris, wash and dry the filters or replace them with new ones.
The emergence of loud noise from air ducts is associated with the penetration of insects, birds, small rodents into the pipeline, insufficient lubrication of moving parts of equipment, and strong wind.
To get rid of the problem, it is necessary to attach a protective net to the sockets of the supply / exhaust channels with self-tapping screws, regularly lubricate the mechanisms, wrap the pipe with sound-insulating material, install silencers.
It is recommended to perform only routine maintenance of ventilation systems on your own, which does not involve significant interference in the design and complicated dismantling works.
For example, sound insulation or cleaning of the ventilation channels. In most cases, this is sufficient to correct the basic faults.
How to deal with noise in the system
Air ducts, valves, fans and forced ventilation flaps create certain sound vibrations that can be heard in a room. According to sanitary and construction standards, the noise level should not exceed 30-40 dB. Violation of the norms is signaled by chronic fatigue, headaches and other health problems.
The noise that occurs during operation, is aerodynamic or mechanical. In the first case, it appears due to poor depreciation, the unsatisfactory state of the nodes, friction and violation of balancing parameters. In the second - is the result of the operation of electric motors, fans.
The following measures will help reduce the noise of the ventilation system:
- installation of the fan on the vibration-insulating bases;
- careful adjustment of parts and balancing rotating parts;
- strong fixation of the fan, valves and valves;
- installation of a removable soundproofing casing;
- insertion of rubber or canvas gaskets between the fan and the duct;
- lining the internal surfaces of air ducts with materials that absorb sound (fiberglass, mineral felt);
- greasing of mobile elements of the compressor.
In natural-type ventilation, noise is very noticeable in windy weather, because getting into the system at high speed, the wind creates a strong hum. It can cope with a chamber, plate or tubular silencer that reduces sound pressure on the walls. It is installed in the upper part of the exhaust pipe.
Another way to compensate for vibration - arrangement of the concrete frame around the duct on the roof. If technical reasons do not allow to perform such an operation, the channel is wrapped with insulation.
Dust, debris and kitchen grease, which constantly accumulate in the ventilation ducts, cause numerous breakdowns and poor-quality system operation. It is possible to prevent undesirable consequences through routine cleaning in the system, carried out every 3-6 months.
Trying to clean the duct, it is desirable to follow a specific procedure:
- Wear tight protective gloves and a mask, prepare a working stable stepladder or chair.
- Remove all air vents, wash them with detergent and then rinse thoroughly. If they are badly worn, replace them with new ones.
- Clean the inner walls of dirty crusts with a small construction spatula (plastic, wooden or rubber), making sure that it does not deform or damage the canal.
- Vacuum the hole in accessible places and wipe with a damp sponge.
In the forced system, instead of a lattice, an exhaust fan is located in a niche. It is pre-turned off and carefully removed, unscrewing the screws that secure the case. Then wash the blades and the grate with a special tool that breaks down fat, and wipe dry.
In order to fully restore normal air circulation, you need to try to clean the channel as deeply as possible using an improvised tool. It is necessary to move carefully, with gradual rotational movements.
At the end of the work, a control check of the anemometer or a piece of paper is carried out.
It should be remembered that tenants of apartment buildings are denied access to the main mines. Therefore, if the cleaning of the channels inside the apartment did not help solve the problem, it makes sense to call special services.
They carry out effective large-scale processing with a vacuum cleaner and a brush machine, disinfect the inner surfaces of pipes with chemicals.
You can disinfect the channels by preparing an inexpensive universal solution of chlorhexidine, boric acid, fir oil and alcohol. The ingredients are placed in a spray bottle, with which the walls of the air ducts are processed.
Disinfecting treatment will eliminate allergenic factors, neutralize all microbes and bacteria living in the pipes.It should be carried out at regular intervals immediately after cleaning the exhaust ducts.
How to improve the work of ventilation
Any damage is always easier to warn than to fix. This will save manpower and funds to call the master and purchase new equipment to replace the broken.
Simple preventive measures will help:
- checking the force of ventilation;
- maintaining the cleanliness of ventilation grids;
- visual inspection of air ducts, fixtures, equipment;
- lubrication of moving mechanisms, fan cleaning;
- airing the premises.
The main condition is the regularity of these activities. For example, the quality of the thrust force is checked annually, the channels and equipment are cleaned as they become contaminated, a visual inspection is needed every few months.
Useful video on the topic
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Ventilation - the most important engineering network of the building, which is entrusted with serious functions. Paying enough attention to prevention, you can save the system from global breakdowns and do maintenance repairs, easily managing without the participation of specialists.