Replacing fluorescent lamps with LEDs: reasons for replacing which ones are better, instructions for replacing
Light devices are constantly being improved. This process is easily traced, starting from the moment of the appearance of the “Ilyich bulb”. As a result of modernization, in addition to direct-glow lamps, luminescent variants appeared, and now the replacement of fluorescent lamps with LED devices seems to be an urgent task.
Society strives for the best, and this is obvious. The main criteria for aspirations are convenience, comfort and, of course, savings.
Features of the device fluorescent lamp
To clearly understand the desire of society to replace fluorescent lamps with LED devices, it is logical to become more familiar with the gas structure.
Indeed, the device of light with a luminescent coating is a glass sealed tube, filled, as a rule, with mercury vapor.
Two modifications of such devices are produced:
- For outdoor installation (with high-pressure flasks).
- For household installation (with low-pressure flasks).
In fact, inside the bulb of a fluorescent lamp there is a mixture of gases consisting of mercury and argon vapor. From the inside, the walls of the glass flask are covered with a special compound - a phosphor. When an electrical discharge is formed in a gaseous medium, a gas glow is formed, and due to the phosphor this glow is transformed into light of the visible range.
Advantages of fluorescent lights
The development and production of luminaires of this type primarily resulted from a constant request for energy savings. Pay tribute - fluorescent lamps can significantly save.
At the same time, it is possible to save at the expense of higher luminous efficiency of devices, placing a smaller number of devices per unit area compared to direct-glow lamps. The expediency of the use of gas-discharge lamps is noted not so much for the household sphere, as for industrial and economic structures, that is, where it is necessary to illuminate large areas with minimal costs in terms of energy consumption.
Among the advantages of fluorescent lamps stands out decent operating time. The average operating time for gas structures is 10,000 hours.
If fluorescent lamps equate to analogs of direct heat, where the maximum operating time is 1000 hours, the predominant difference becomes more than obvious.
The disadvantages of light devices with phosphor spraying
However, the advantages of fluorescent lamps, unfortunately, do not hide the pronounced disadvantages of these devices. And the main negative here is increased chemical danger.
The cylinder of each lamp contains at least 2 mg of mercury, and this chemical element belongs to the category of extremely dangerous for a living organism. Of course, as long as the flask is in an airtight state, the chemical hazard is reduced to zero. Nevertheless, the cases of the battle of glass cylinders of fluorescent lamps - this practice is quite common.
Also of the shortcomings should be noted "cold" light and the effect of "strobe". Both effects have an adverse effect on vision. That is why fluorescent lamps are not widely used in the domestic sphere. In short, there was every reason to put an edge on the question of replacing fluorescent lamps.A suitable alternative was found quickly.
An alternative to fluorescent lamps - LEDs - appeared relatively recently and was marked by a clear success from a technical and environmental point of view.
The structure of lamps based on LEDs does not imply the presence of any aggressive chemistry, especially harmful to human health. As such, the unified design of LED lamps does not exist.
On the contrary, this option is “sharpened” for a unique design of the design. True, model series is produced, which includes lamps somewhat similar to one another, with the exception of small parts.
If we compare devices with LEDs with fluorescent lamps in terms of the efficiency of the light flux, the first devices, of course, are inferior. The scattering ability of fluorescent lamps is still marked at a higher level.
Therefore, LED lamps are more often used instead of fluorescent ones as point light devices. Meanwhile, for living conditions, the factor of effective light scattering is usually not dominant.
But if you compare the device according to the degree of power consumption, LED lamps look like the most economical of all existing modifications. The same significant advantage of the LED design is stated in terms of durability. Even luminescent devices with their maximum parameter of 20,000 hours are inferior to LED lamps with their standard limit of 50,000 hours.
The indisputable advantage is the overall dimensions of the LED lamps.Perhaps these are the smallest devices of light from all existing.
Traditional direct lamps can still argue in this direction, but the temperature parameters of traditional lamps reduce this dispute to a loss. The LEDs heat up slightly (at a normal ambient temperature of 25-27ºС).
The disadvantages of LED designs
The list of deficiencies usually consists of three main points:
- poor build quality;
- use of sub-standard parts.
Based on this list, you can understand the significant difference in price, which is often fixed on the market. As a rule, high-quality branded devices have high price tags. But the assortment in the low price category is most likely an off-market item.
What is fraught with the purchase of substandard products? Such lamps, in most cases, “suffer” with a gating defect — a flicker that is invisible to human eyes and affects the brain system. In this case, the LEDs are no different from the halogen. As a result, it is often for users that business ends with nervous irritability, weakness, and poor well-being.
Low-cost devices are assembled from the same low-cost parts that do not meet technical standards. During the assembly process, toxic materials are used: lead, phenol, formaldehyde resins.
The conclusion is obvious: if you already buy an LED lamp, the savings in this matter are simply irrelevant. In turn, buying an expensive product with eyes closed is also not recommended.
Instructions: how to replace one device to another
So, if the user feels like the technical and operational characteristics of LED linear lamps and the option of replacing fluorescent devices has matured, how to do this? It is conditionally possible to divide the replacement into two options:
- Full dismantle of the old lamp and installation of the new.
- Use halogen chassis for LED installation.
With the first option is clear - you will have to perform the following work sequentially:
- turn off the power of the lamp;
- carefully remove fluorescent lamps and dispose of them according to the rules;
- disconnect the power supply line;
- dismantle the chassis;
- install chassis under LED lamps;
- connect the power line.
For the second option, a characteristic feature is the selection of LED light devices corresponding to the dimensions of fluorescent lamps that are to be replaced. The base of the LED lamps must also match (usually the type of base G13).
Further, on the old chassis it is necessary to remove the entire auxiliary circuit set: choke (EMPRA), electronic ballast (in modified structures), starter block, smoothing capacitor.
The power lines of these elements are simply closed. That is, the power supply to the base of the LED lamp is fed straight from the network, bypassing any additional elements.
If the chassis is installed on two or more LED elements, in this case, the base pads for each device are connected to the others according to the parallel connection scheme.
What better lamp to choose for replacement
It is recommended to use a standard principle that has been repeatedly verified by the personal experience of many users. The first recommendation is to choose devices from the range of well-known manufacturers, which guarantee high product quality. Such devices usually stand out for their high cost, but quickly pay for themselves at the cost of energy efficiency.
The second selection principle is the number of LED elements per unit area of the working surface of the lamp. The more LED elements placed on the surface, the higher the scattering power of the lamp.Therefore, if it is necessary to illuminate a large area of the room, you should choose products with the maximum possible number of LEDs.
Out of habit, a potential buyer chooses light devices with an eye on the power parameter. In this case, the power is determined somewhat differently - taking into account the ratio of 1 to 10, when compared with an ordinary direct-glow lamp. For example, if the power of a conventional device is 100 watts, then the LED counterpart will correspond to 10 watts.
Based on the operating conditions, select the lamps for the class of protection. For domestic use, the IP40 grade is usually a satisfactory option. For rooms with higher requirements - protection class from 50 and above. High protection parameters are necessary for luminaires installed in special rooms with an explosive environment.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video demonstrates the practice of replacing one type of lamp with another.Consecutive actions for the dismantling and installation of work items.
An example that is surely useful for practical application:
If we evaluate the technical characteristics, operating conditions and operation of devices in everyday life, luminescent light sources win. They also have their drawbacks, but even if they are available, they save energy and serve for a long time. On an industrial scale, the savings are significant.