Social inequality and its causes
A distinctive feature of any societyis its division according to national, social, class, demographic or some other characteristics. This is precisely what causes social inequality. In past centuries, it manifested itself in the form of violence, infringement of human rights and other actions.
Today, this is so obvious, as before, does not happen. But, nevertheless, social inequality takes place, only it is manifested in a more subtle form, for it is impossible to exterminate it forever. Let us consider in more detail what it is and what its causes are.
In ancient Russia, there was a division of people intocertain strata of society (noblemen, princes, landlords, peasants, etc.). Each of these groups was at a particular step of the social ladder and had its own rights and responsibilities. This division is also called social differentiation. This situation is typical for any society.
Social inequality is a different level of accessibility, proximity to such social benefits as money, prestige, power.
Originally there was a simple formstratification of society. There were leaders who possessed the widest rights, and ordinary people who obeyed them and had some limitations in their actions and opportunities. With the development of society, new hierarchical levels have appeared, and social inequality has acquired a more complex form.
Every society strives to achieve equalityat all levels, which means equal opportunities for all people regardless of their gender, age, nationality and other characteristics. However, this can not be achieved for various reasons.
First, this is an unequal distributionmaterial benefits and opportunities. This is mainly due to the heterogeneity of labor. Carrying out different in its importance work and differently satisfying the needs of society, people receive an unequal evaluation of their work. This is what can be called the main cause of social inequality.
Inheritance of certain rights and privilegesis the next reason for the unequal distribution of benefits and opportunities. Sometimes it is for this reason that people with high abilities and good education do not always have the opportunity to get a good job, to take a certain position with a salary that is worthy of their intellectual level.
There are two primary reasonssocial inequality. One of them is the level of access to quality education for different segments of the population. The second reason is unequal opportunities with an equal level of preparation.
The reasons for the division of society and the signs, according towhich it happens, can be very different. Criteria are both objective and subjective. In today's society, they are a profession, income level, position occupied, participation in power, education, ownership and some other characteristics. Social inequality generates division into classes.
If the society is mainly dominated by the averageclass, then we can consider it stable, with a low level of social inequality. But in Russia so far only the emergence of this social stratum.
Social inequality can not be completely exterminated for various reasons.
In any society, someone must carry outcontrol over the distribution of resources and benefits. And this sometimes becomes more desirable than the possession of the material goods themselves. Appears category of officials with great opportunities.
Each society has its own political, economic and state structure, headed by certain people who have more rights than other people.
And the last factor is the person himself and the features of his character. He always aspires to surpass others in order to occupy more profitable social positions.