The goal of industrialization of the USSR. Years of industrialization, its course, results
Socialist industrialization has gone down in historycountries as a process of creating in it a modern industry and the formation of a technically equipped society. With the exception of the war years and the period of the post-war reconstruction of the economy, it covers a period of time from the end of the twenties to the early sixties, but its main burden fell on the first five-year plan.
The need for modernization of industry
The goal of industrialization was to overcomelag, caused by the inability of the NEP to provide the necessary level of technical equipment of the national economy. If there was some progress in such areas as light industry, trade and services, then it was not possible to develop heavy industry based on private capital. The reasons for industrialization included the need to create a military-industrial complex.
Plan of the First Five-Year Plan
For the solution of the tasks under the leadershipStalin developed a five-year plan for the development of the national economy (1928-1932), adopted in April 1929 at a meeting of the next party conference. The tasks assigned to employees of all industries, in most cases, exceeded the real capabilities of the performers. However, this document had the force of an order given in wartime, and was not subject to discussion.
According to the first five-year plan,It was planned to increase the output of industrial products by 185%, and in the heavy machinery industry to achieve production growth by 225%. To ensure these indicators, it was planned to achieve an increase in labor productivity by 115%. Successful implementation of the plan, according to the developers, should lead to an increase in average wages in the manufacturing sector by 70%, and the incomes of agricultural workers increase by 68%. In order to supply the state with enough food, the plan envisaged the involvement of almost 20% of peasants in collective farms.
Industrial chaos, generated by storming
Already during the implementation of the planned plans, there werethe terms of construction of the majority of large industrial enterprises have been substantially reduced, and the volumes of agricultural production have been increased. This was done without any technical justification. The calculation was mainly based on universal enthusiasm, fueled by a large-scale propaganda campaign. One of the slogans of those years was the call to fulfill the five-year plan in four years.
Features of industrialization of those years werein forced industrial construction. It is known that when the terms of the five-year plan were shortened, the planned tasks almost doubled, and the annual increase in production reached 30%. Accordingly, the plans for collectivization were also increased. Such a storming inevitably gave rise to chaos, in which some branches did not keep up with others, sometimes adjacent to them. This precluded any possibility of systematic development of the economy.
The result of the five-year path
During the First Five-Year Plan, the goal of industrializationin full volume has not been achieved. In many industries, real indicators in many respects did not reach the intended volumes. This particularly affected the extraction of energy resources, as well as the production of steel and cast iron. But, nevertheless, significant progress was made in the creation of the military-industrial complex and all the accompanying infrastructure.
The second stage of industrialization
In 1934 the plan of the Second Five-Year Plan was adopted. The purpose of industrialization of the country during this period was to establish the work of enterprises built during the previous five years, as well as to eliminate everywhere the results of the chaos that arose in industry because of the establishment of technically unjustified high rates of development.
When drafting the plan, they were largelythe shortcomings of the past are taken into account. In a larger amount, the financing of production was envisaged, and considerable attention was paid to the problems associated with secondary and higher education. Their decision was necessary to ensure the national economy with a sufficient number of qualified specialists.
Propaganda campaigns during the five-year plans
Already in these years, the results of the industrialization of the countryslowed down. In the cities, and partly in the rural areas, the supply has improved noticeably. The population's demand for consumer goods was more satisfied. The scale of these successes was greatly inflated by the large-scale agitation campaign conducted in the country, attributing all the services to the exclusively Communist Party and its leader Stalin.
Despite the fact that during the years of industrializationthe widespread introduction of advanced technology was carried out, manual labor was still predominant in many areas of production, and where propaganda methods were not possible to reach the growth of labor productivity in a technological way. An example of this can serve as the famous Stakhanovite movement, developed in those years. The race for record workings led to the fact that individual drummers, to whose feats the entire enterprise was preparing, received awards and bonuses, and the rest only increased the standards, calling at the same time to be equal to the foremost.
Results of the first five-year plans
In 1937, Stalin announced that the goalindustrialization is basically achieved, and socialism is built. Numerous failures in production were explained solely by the intrigues of the enemies of the people, against which the most brutal terror was established. When the second five-year plan was completed in a year, then, as its most important results, evidence was given of the growth in the production of pig iron in two and a half times, steel - three times, and cars - at eight.
If in the twenties the country was purely agrarian,then, at the end of the Second Five-Year Plan, it became an industrial-agrarian one. Between these two stages lie the truly titanic labor of the whole people. In the post-war period, the USSR became a powerful industrial power. It is generally accepted that socialist industrialization was completed by the beginning of the sixties. At that time, most of the country's population lived in cities and was engaged in industrial production.
Over the years of industrialization, new industries have emerged,such as automotive, aircraft building, chemical and electrical industries. But the most important thing was that the state had learned to produce everything it needed for its own needs. If before the equipment for production of a particular product was imported from abroad, now the need for it was provided by its own industry.