Well or well - which is better? Detailed comparative review
The desire to acquire its own source of water for many owners of country sites is quite logical and natural. The only stumbling block in resolving this issue is to determine if it is still better - a well or a well?
Builders performing services for digging wells are ready to bring a sea of arguments, confirming that the well is a brilliant invention that will serve for five decades. Masters who specialize in drilling wells convince us that a well is the best version of a hydraulic structure.
Each of these two methods of extracting water has its pros and cons, the main ones among which we consider in the article.
Well and well design features
The well is a hydraulic structure in the form of a vertically dug cavity with a depth of 30 meters and a mine diameter of over 70 centimeters, the walls of which are reinforced with reinforced concrete rings.
In the soil layers there are several aquifers, occurring at different depths. The top one, referred to as the upper layer, is located 2-3 meters from the surface. Its water is rather muddy and dirty, because it feeds through drainage and storm drains penetrating through the soil and technogenic deposits.
The water extracted from this layer is used to water the plants. Slightly deeper in the sandy aquifers ground water is deposited. Of these, they extract water when arranging a drinking well.
There may be several aquifers in the ground, and they alternate with waterproof layers. For the extraction of water from the first and second sandy horizons, Abyssinian wells are being built - small-diameter wells that are not drilled during installation, but pierce the soil layers with an inch barbell, like a needle.
At a depth of 200 meters and below are limestone layers, referred to as artesian. They contain large reserves of water, rather than the same sandy formations.
The key difference of the artesian well is that it produces water, which lies between two dense layers. Since the price of such a hydraulic structure directly depends on the depth of the structure, and its performance is ten times higher than the needs of one family, artesian wells are often installed collectively: one on the street or on the whole village.
Comparative cost of water intake
For many owners, the question of choosing which well or well is better is far from idle. After all, it determines the cost of the construction and maintenance of facilities for the extraction of water.
When calculating the estimated estimated cost of water intake should consider a number of parameters:
- earthworks at the rate of each running meter in depth;
- the volume of materials for strengthening the walls of penetration;
- frequency of maintenance facilities.
Calculations show that at the cost of costs, including all installation and maintenance of the erected structure, a well is cheaper. Due to the low cost of excavation, which can be performed without the involvement of heavy machinery, many gardeners, gardeners and villagers can afford to install a well.
The estimated cost of a well configuration varies from 30 to 40 thousand rubles. It includes:
- Installing the bottom filter (4-5 thousand rubles.).
- Filtration gravel dumping (1-1.5 thousand rubles).
- Outdoor house for ogolovka (from 7 thousand rubles.).
- Submersible pump with installation (15 + 7 = 22 thousand rubles).
The construction of the well without taking into account the laying of communications from the place of water intake to the points of consumption will cost about 100 thousand rubles. The cost depends on the time of year, the depth of drilling and the equipment used.
The price of the pump for the mine well is also much cheaper than in comparison with the pumping equipment necessary when setting up the well.
Preventive cleaning frequency
Preventive maintenance of the well is carried out annually. The price of such annual sanitization, carried out by the efforts of craftsmen specializing in this field, is about 6 thousand rubles.
When carrying out capital cleaning of walls from silting, which is carried out every five years, you will have to spend another 7 thousand rubles. If it is necessary to replace the bottom filter, the cost of the work is doubled.
Flushing wells in this plan is cheaper. With proper well development, the care of a hydraulic structure is reduced only to monitoring the operation of the system, since it does not need to be cleaned annually.
Preventive cleaning system is performed every five years. The cost of the service, depending on the depth of the structure, varies from 6 to 50 thousand rubles.Water purification is carried out through the installation of filters. It is easy to care for the filtering elements of the structure: they need only be cleaned and replaced as needed.
Features of installation of buildings
There are also a number of significant differences in construction technologies and placement requirements for mine and tubular wells, which influence the choice of the type of water source for arranging country estates.
When constructing a well, it is important to maintain a distance from the buried septic tanks, sewer lines and surface contaminants. Taking into account the current sanitary standards, it should be at least 50 meters to the cesspools, toilets and barnyards located on the site of septic tanks.
By choosing a place for drilling a sandy well, this distance can be reduced to 30 meters without worrying that surface water polluted by household drains will reach the point of intake. The closed design of the construction, the walls of which are made of durable, moisture-resistant concrete rings, helps to prevent the penetration of contaminated water and debris into its cavities.
Artesian well construction requirements are stricter. Industrial enterprises and other sources of chemical contamination should be removed at a distance of more than 300 meters from the well location. The distance to landfills, burial grounds and centralized sewers should be at least 200 meters. Houses and outbuildings and should be removed at least 30 meters.
The need for a permit and construction time
When setting up a well from the first aquifer to the depth of the aeration zone, which is 20 meters, no permits are required. Determine the horizon of the aquifer, you can empirically, or by applying for the issuance of geological information of your area in the territorial fund.
When planning to drill a well for the extraction of deep waters, the horizon of which exceeds 20 meters, before starting work it is necessary to obtain a package of permits. To obtain the right to drill an artesian well and use the water extracted from the depths of the water, a project is being developed which describes:
- what rocks the well intersects;
- at what depth are the filters located;
- whether cementation of pipes is provided and to what depth.
The license is issued only for wells intended for the extraction of artesian water. Together with the license, the owner of the well gets an agreement at its disposal, pledging to submit reports to the statistics and pay taxes to the tax authorities.
In the passport attached to the documents on the well all the necessary characteristics will be displayed:
- well location coordinates;
- immersion depth;
- dynamic and piezometric levels;
- sizes of used casing;
- construction performance.
The process of drilling a well will take less time than carrying out procedures for coordinating the project in various instances. On the arrangement of a sand well and a hydraulic structure of the “needle” type, on average, it takes from one to two days. The drilling of the Abyssinian well can also be carried out on its own using a manual method using a 150-mm auger drill.
For drilling an artesian well, it is better to attract professionals by entering into an agreement with them to carry out the work. After all, any deviation of the barrel from the vertical during the installation process may result in the need to redo the work anew.
When installing the well there is no need to issue permits for construction. According to Article 19 of the Subsoil Law, it is allowed to build underground structures with a depth of no more than 5 meters on a private plot.
The complexity of the execution of the mine well is that it has a large number of structural parts. For example: when erecting the walls of a concrete shaft with a construction of 30 meters in depth, 33 reinforced concrete rings are required, with a height of products of 90 centimeters, and as many joints for their connection. For comparison: when arranging wells use pipes whose length of segments is 2.06 meters. Consequently, they also have fewer joints.
The only thing is that after the construction of the well, it is desirable to register the material object officially, making it into the site plan.BTI does not impose any sanctions on unauthorized construction of the well. The technical plan of the site is the only official document on which the well will be marked.
Operational period of constructions
The service life of the well is from 30 to 50 years. The stable operation of downhole hydraulic structures is on average:
- “Abyssinian needle” - from 5 to 7 years;
- sand well - up to 15 years;
- artesian over 50 years.
The service life of both types of hydraulic structures depends on the quality of the arrangement of the system, the regularity of maintenance, the soil structure of the area and the chemical composition of the produced water.
Volume and quality of produced water
A significant parameter when choosing between the well and the well is also the maximum amount of water “extracted” from the source. Some people mistakenly believe that the water in the well is much smaller than in the well, arguing that the well has a much larger section size than the same well.In fact, it is not.
Features of water intake from the well
Due to the fact that the well is filled only with the waters of the Quaternary sediments, the value of the tributaries of the hydraulic structure is limited to 0.5 cubic meters per hour. To maintain a small area with a house of this volume is enough. But with the arrangement of a large area of land, including the cost of watering greenery, filling the pool and other economic needs, this amount will obviously be small. And, as practice shows, the volume of water in the well recovers very slowly, in some cases up to several hours.
If we focus on the quality of water, then the well wins. When arranging the well, it is impossible to ensure complete waterproofing of the structure, since it is necessary to create conditions for natural inflow through the bottom.
The water produced by the well, although it will not have a taste of "rust" and chlorine, but most likely after a heavy rain or high water, it will still contain impurities of groundwater.
Specificity of water intake from the well
Spring water at all times was considered the most pure and useful. Due to the fact that the well selects drinking water at a great depth, it does not mix with the upper melt and flood waters. And even after heavy rains, the water extracted from the well does not become turbid.
The water in the well is quickly replenished. The value of the tributaries for downhole hydraulic structures is on average:
- “Needle” - 0.5 cubic meters / hour;
- sand well - 1.5 cubic meters / hour;
- artesian - 5 cubic meters / hour.
High inflow is characteristic only for aquifers located as deep as possible from the surface. The reserve of the aquifer is practically inexhaustible. Full drying of the well is impossible even with regular operation of the structure using a powerful pump.
It is worth noting that some well owners complain that the water extracted in this way has a slightly metallic flavor. But this effect is observed when pipes, made of low-quality metal, are used in the installation of the structure.
The priority of well selection is easily explained by the high tightness of the structure, which is achieved due to the snug fit of the casing to the body structure. This helps prevent mixing of groundwater and aquifer.
In addition, well-type water intakes are equipped with reliable filtration systems, due to which a high degree of purification is achieved. Insects and small amphibians, which can release toxic substances during the process of decay, cannot penetrate through the narrow top-closed neck of the well, thereby promoting the reproduction of pathogens.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Tips builders on the choice of the optimal water source:
Summing up, it is worth noting that it is better to equip a mine well in the summer cottages intended for seasonal living, provided that the water is located just a few meters from the ground level. With a small consumption of water, which is mainly spent on household needs and watering plants, excess moisture will accumulate in the mine.
In addition, equipping the well in the country, you will always have the opportunity to raise the water from the depth by hand, which is so important in the face of frequent power outages.When arranging areas intended for year-round living, the depth of the location of the water on which is quite large, it is better to choose the well drilling. At first it will be necessary to spend money on its arrangement, but in the process of constant operation of the structure the cost pays off completely.