What are the dictionaries?

Currently, there are just over two dozen dictionaries in which the words and expressions of a language (or languages) are divided into certain types. So, let's see what dictionaries are.

Explanatory Dictionaries

These linguistic dictionaries explainthe meaning of different words and stable idiomatic expressions (phraseological units) of a language using the same language. Explanatory dictionaries can be more or less complete and designed for a particular circle of readers. The most complete and accurate dictionaries are called academic.

Grammar Dictionaries

A fairly large group of dictionaries, whose purposeis the coverage of a separate or several groups of vocabulary of a language, united by some grammatical attribute. For example, there are dictionaries of verbs, adjectives, indeclinable words.

Formative and morphemic dictionaries

Dictionaries morphemes - roots, suffixes, prefixes and other parts of the word, serving for word formation in a language.

Dictionaries of compatibility

This group of dictionaries is less common, and its purposeis the correct choice of words in order to express their thoughts stylistically more correctly. Given the modern level of oral and especially written speech, such dictionaries would be nice to publish in large editions.

Thesauruses or ideographic dictionaries

In these dictionaries, words are divided into groups that are close in meaning, which makes it easier to compose texts on a specific topic.

Backward dictionaries

They greatly simplify many linguisticStudies, because the words in them are arranged in alphabetical order, but in the reverse order, that is, right-to-left. Thus, it is very easy to quickly select all verbs or, for example, adjectives. To me such a dictionary (for the authorship of AA Zaliznyak) greatly facilitated the preparation of the practical part of the thesis.

Orthographic and orthoepic dictionaries

They are a list of words of a particular language with their correct spelling (orthographic) and emphasis (orthoepicheskie) and indicating options if necessary.

Lexical dictionaries

Dictionaries of individual vocabulary groups selected bydifferent principles. Here we will include dictionaries of antonyms, synonyms, homonyms and paronyms. In the dictionaries of synonyms you will find words that are different in spelling and sound, but close in meaning ("beautiful" - "beautiful"). Dictionaries of homonyms, on the contrary, contain words identical in spelling and sound, but different in meaning ("bow" as a plant and "bow" as a weapon). But in the dictionaries of paronyms you will get acquainted with single-root words that are close in composition and sound, but different in meaning, which are often confused (for example, "dress" and "wear"). Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning ("good" - "evil").

Dictionaries of neologisms

These dictionaries contain a list of words that have recently been included in one or another language.

Bilingual or translation dictionaries

Dictionaries, in which the translation of words from onelanguage to another. Such dictionaries, as a rule, are bilingual, but there are also instances with a large number of languages ​​(for example, French-Russian-German).

Anthroponymic dictionaries

A group of dictionaries containing a list of the proper names of people (name, patronymic, surname), as well as nicknames and pseudonyms in one or another language.

Dictionaries of names of residents

Here we are talking about how to refer to the inhabitants of a particular city, region or region.

Lingvostranovedcheskie and culturological dictionaries

They contain detailed information about the culture and way of life of the people, who speaks the language studied.

Dictionaries of linguistic terms

These dictionaries explain the meaning of the terms of various areas of linguistics from phonetics and graphics to syntax and stylistics.


Here you will find the decoding of all possible abbreviations and abbreviations widely used in one or another language.

Terminological dictionaries

These publications are more or less complete lists of terms (with interpretations) in a particular branch of science or industry.

Of course, this list is far from complete, becausethere are also more narrowly focused dictionaries (for example, dictionaries of epithets and comparisons or dictionaries of language difficulties), however such dictionaries are quite rare and they have to be used, in the main, only by a narrow circle of specialists.

Encyclopaedic Dictionaries

Unlike dictionaries of linguistic ones, about whichwe have discussed this before, encyclopedic dictionaries are explanatory dictionaries intended to study the realities of a particular field of knowledge or profession. In addition, encyclopedic dictionaries can be either universal (for example, children's encyclopaedias or the "Great Soviet Encyclopedia"), as well as branch ones. As examples to the latter we give a philosophical encyclopedia and an astronomical encyclopedia. Well, I think we answered quite fully the question of which dictionaries exist.

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