What is a volcanic eruption? What comes out of the volcano during the eruption?
Natural disasters can be different, but onethe volcanic eruption is recognized as the most dangerous. Every day on the planet there are up to ten such emissions, many of which people do not even notice.
What is a volcano?
A volcano is a geological formation located on the surface of the earth's crust. At the locations of the craters, magma emerges outward and forms lava, followed by gases and rock fragments.
The stone monster received its name from the ancient Roman fire god, who bore the majestic name of Vulcan.
Such mountains can be classified on several grounds. So, for example, in form, these formations are divided into the following types:
- The dome.
In addition, volcanoes can be identified depending on their location:
In addition, among the inhabitants there is another, simple classification, which depends on the degree of activity of volcanoes:
- Active. This education is characterized by the fact that it erupted relatively recently.
- The sleeping volcano. This definition refers to a mountain that is currently inactive, but in the future an eruption can occur.
- An extinct volcano is a tectonic formation that no longer has the ability to gush forth.
Why do volcanoes erupt?
Before you deal with the products that emerge from the volcano during the eruption, you need to know what this terrible phenomenon is and what its causes are.
The eruption means the exit to the surface of lava flows, which is accompanied by the release of gases and ash. Volcanoes erupt because of the large amount of substances accumulated in the magma.
What comes out of the volcano during the eruption?
Magma is constantly at very highpressure, therefore the gases always remain dissolved in it in the form of a liquid. The molten rock, which an onslaught of volatile substances gradually pushes to the surface, passes through the cracks and enters the hard layers of the mantle. Here the magma swiftly exits.
It would seem that there should no longer be questionsabout what appears when the volcano erupts, because the magma turns into a lava and pours to the surface. However, in fact, during the eruption, in addition to these components, many different substances can reveal themselves to the world.
Lava is the most famous product, allocated inthe course of active volcanic activity. It is on her most often point people, answering the question: "What comes out of the volcano during the eruption?". Photos of this red-hot substance can be seen in the article.
Lava masses are compoundssilicon, aluminum and other metals. There is also an interesting fact associated with it: it is known that this is the only terrestrial product in which you can find all the elements that are in the periodic table.
Lava is an incandescent magma that flows fromcrater of the volcano and is directed down its slopes. During the ascent, the composition of the underground guest is constantly changing due to atmospheric factors. In addition, a large number of gases, which together with the magma rise to the surface, make it bubble.
The average temperature of the lava is 1000 degrees, so it easily destroys all the obstacles that arise in its path.
It is equally interesting to consider what comes out of the eruption of a volcano, except lava. In the midst of the process, huge debris is thrown to the surface of the earth, which scientists called Tephra.
Of the total mass, the largest fragments are isolated,nicknamed "volcanic bombs". These fragments are liquid products, which during the ejection solidify in the air. The size of such stones can differ: the smallest of them are like peas, and the largest ones are larger than the size of a walnut.
Also, answering the question "What comes out of the volcano?", One should not forget about ashes. It often leads to catastrophic consequences, since it stands out even with a slight eruption, which can not harm people.
Fine ash particles spread through the airwith a huge speed - up to 100 kilometers per hour. Naturally, a significant amount of this substance can get into the person's throat during breathing, so when erupting, you should cover your face with a handkerchief or special respirator. The peculiarity of ash is that it is able to cross huge distances even bypassing water and elevations. These small particles are so hot that they constantly glow in the dark.
Do not forget about what comes out of the volcanowhen erupting, among other things, a large number of gases. The composition of this volatile mixture includes hydrogen, sulfur and carbon. In minor quantities boron, bromic acid, mercury, metals are contained.
All gases that stand out from the volcano's moutheruption time, have a white color. And if tephra is mixed with gases, the clubs acquire a black shade. Often, it is through the black smoke coming from the volcanic crater that people determine that a release will soon occur and need to be evacuated.
In addition, it is necessary to know what comes out ofvolcano during eruption, in addition to the above substances. This is a strong smell of hydrogen sulfide. So, for example, on some islands the volcanic spirit extends for hundreds of kilometers.
A noteworthy fact: a small amount of gas continues to emerge from the volcano's vents for several years from the day of the eruption. At the same time, such emissions are very poisonous, and getting into the water with rain, they poison it and make it unsuitable for drinking.