What is ethics?
The word "ethics" has a Greek root, which in translation means "temper" or "custom". Let's find out in more detail what ethics are and why we need it.
The concept of ethics
Ethics - a philosophical teaching, exploring morality and morality, as well as questions of good and evil. This term is also understood as the norms of human behavior in society and the way to regulate relations.
Ethics does not give advice for every day, it forms only directions. The task of ethics is to teach morality, so that later the person himself finds the right solutions.
The history of appearance: ethics in philosophy
If we turn to the origins of ethics, then as an example of the first rules of behavior, one can bring respect to the senior members of the tribe.
- As a philosophical doctrine, ethicsappeared for the first time among the Pythagoreans. They outlined the basic principles of good, such as harmony, measure and order in everything. Accordingly, evil was defined as a violation of harmony and symmetry.
- Aristotle first identified the subject of ethics. He puts this term at the heart of practical philosophy. According to his teaching, the main goal is happiness, which can be achieved only through self-realization. The virtues to be adhered to are a sense of proportion, prudence and a golden mean in everything.
- Philosophers of the Renaissance considered that ethics -it is something that is initially available in man and does not require education. In every person from birth virtues are laid, and under conditions favorable for development, he can not become immoral. The norms of morality are absolutely natural, and proof of this is the presence of conscience.
- Kant also considered the principles of ethics initiallymortgaged, but not at all. According to the philosopher, this does not depend on the conditions under which a person was born and raised. A person of uneducated, ignoble origin may have greater virtue and wisdom than a noble and better educated person. Desire and goodwill are the main condition for the implementation of ethical norms.
At all times a person has tried to determine foryourself, what is good and evil, and what is really valuable is the good of one individual or the whole of society. Ethics in philosophy have always had many directions. In addition, ethical issues have been constantly changing, and this process continues to this day.
Among modern ethical concepts, two main ones can be distinguished: the ethics of violence and the ethics of nonviolence.
The founders of the concept of ethics of violence were Nietzsche,Dühring and Karl Marx. They believed that violence plays a big role in the history of mankind and is absolutely justified in the change of power. In their opinion, everyone has the right to change the way of life of society, and human sacrifices are inevitable. In practice, the ethic of violence has developed in such dictatorships as Leninism, Stalinism and Hitlerism.
Modern ethics of non-violence appeared ina counterbalance to the ethics of violence and was widely recognized in the twentieth century. The basic principle of this concept is this: no violence against a person is permissible - neither moral nor physical.
A big role in the development of this conceptbelongs to Leo Tolstoy. In his opinion, using violence against each other, people become vicious. These imperfections need to be eradicated in themselves, as they are destructive for their owner and those around them.
M.L. King even opened the "Institute of Nonviolence" in New York. He, in turn, described the principles of philanthropy and the ways of their development. According to King, love for each other is the only chance for mankind to survive.
Another famous humanist of the 20th century is Gandhi. He believed that the principles of nonviolence are natural for strong, educated people. The harmony of reason and love is the ideal foundation for the ethics of nonviolence.
Subject of ethics: rules of communication
What is the ethics of communication? Can we interact with each other without respecting ethical standards? Of course, no, because communication should not only be productive, but also enjoyable.
During any communication, the rules of courtesy must be observed. Do not be rude or raise your voice. This will not only bring the conversation to naught, but also turn all communication into a senseless waste of time.
Disagreement with the interlocutor should be expressed only in the correct form and without the transition to the individual. Arguments should be given only as a matter of fact - then the interlocutors can come to a decision.